“Meat in the bowl” was once regarded as a symbol of affluent life, but nowadays, vegetarianism is being respected by more and more people, and has even evolved into a lifestyle trend in the world.
It is estimated that there are more than 50 million vegetarians in my country , with a high proportion of women. Human beings who have evolved to the top of the food chain after millions of years are suitable for eating meat or vegetarian?
November 25 is International Vegetarian Day, interview experts to explain this topic for you.
Wang Xingguo, Director of Nutrition Department, Dalian Central Hospital
Associate Professor Zhang Hao, School of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University< /p>
Looking at human beings from the perspective of physiological structure
Is it more suitable for meat or vegetarian?
About why you are vegetarian, there are There are various theories, and some articles compare the anatomical structure and physiological functions of herbivores, carnivores, and humans, and come to the view that “humans are naturally suitable for vegetarianism”.
Wang Xingguo said that it is not scientific to prove this point of view by comparing physiological structures.
grass fed The teeth of animals are more wear-resistant
Herbivorous animals generally have strong chewing muscles and molars with stronger wear resistance, while humans The wear resistance and replacement of molars are very different from them.
Herbivores have longer guts< /strong>
The human small intestine to height ratio is significantly lower than that of herbivores.
The ratio of human gut to height is about 5, while the gut of most herbivores is about 9 times the body length, and the gut of carnivores The intestine is generally 2 to 6 times the length of the body. Judging from this indicator, humans are more inclined to carnivorous animals.
grass fed Animals have multiple stomachs
The normal pH value of human gastric juice is below 2, and it is difficult for herbivores to reach pH 4 after eating .
Typical herbivores usually have multiple stomachs, Or have a well-developed cecum, and humans have only one stomach, and the cecum is not well-developed.
< span>Evolution has determined that humans are more omnivorous
In fact, according to the feeding habits of mammals, carnivorous and herbivorous It’s not either/or, because there are omnivores, and humans are omnivores.
In the natural environment, animals will instinctively select foods that can meet their own nutritional needs from new foods, and dietary orientation is not necessarily determined solely by Physiologically determined.
Furthermore, herbivorous mammals often need to eat “non-stop” and the time foraging and eating is greatly Increase.
This directly leads to less time spent socializing than Those who eat meat cannot develop like human ancestors. Therefore, carnivorous omnivores are closer to the evolutionary trend.
Why are more and more vegetarians Popularity?
Since humans are omnivores , why is vegetarianism increasingly considered a healthier choice?
Modern humans have obtained sufficient food through mass production, and can also process food. At this time, the goal of human beings is more about how to efficiently meet nutritional needs , and eat better.
From a nutritional point of view, meat, eggs, milk And other animal foods contain a lot of nutrients needed by the human body, such as high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals.
However, some of these foods are eaten too much by modern people, and the fat and cholesterol contained in them have become “health killers” “. Therefore, modern dietary guidelines advocate that people increase the proportion of vegetarian food in their diet.
In the list of the best diets in the world in 2022, “flexitarian vegetarian” also ranks first on the list of the best diets for weight loss, the best Diabetes diet list number two.
The general requirements for “flexitarian” are:< /span>Eat more plant foods and less meat, but not completely meatless.
The diet mainly consists of five Group food composition, non-meat protein such as eggs and beans; fruits and vegetables; whole grains; dairy products; avoid meat as much as possible, and eat a small amount of fish.
Flexible eating also improves overall health, reduces the incidence of heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and increases longevity.
Science Vegetarian, Gudou Mushrooms cannot be less
Due to diet The composition lacks animal food, and vegetarians are prone to insufficient intake of nutrients such as vitamin B12, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein, so they must pay special attention to a balanced diet.
Not recommended Vegetarian diet
Vegetarian people can be roughly divided into two types, one is to completely abstain from animal food Vegetarians and their products, and one is vegetarians who do not quit eating eggs, milk and related products.
It is recommended that vegetarians choose lacto-ovo vegetarian as much as possible, except for beliefs Factors, it is not recommended that infants, children, pregnant women, the frail and the elderly choose a vegan diet.
< span>Increase the proportion of whole grains in each meal
Vegetarians consume at least 12 kinds of food every day, weekly Not less than 25 kinds.
Consume no less than 100 grams (raw weight) of cereals per meal, half of which are whole grainsMiscellaneous beans, such as whole wheat flour, oats, red beans, etc., are high in carbohydrates and can replace part of polished rice and white flour.
< span>Increase the intake of soybean products
Soybeans are rich in protein, unsaturated fatty acids, calcium, B group vitamins, and a variety of health-promoting substances.
Soybean and its products are important foods for vegetarians and should be consumed in sufficient amounts every day. Vegans should consume 50-80 grams of soybeans and their products per day, and vegetarians should consume 25-60 grams per day.
Based on the protein provided, 50 grams of soybeans are equivalent to 145 grams of northern tofu, 280 grams of southern tofu, 350 grams of lactone tofu, 110 grams of dried tofu, 80 grams of shredded tofu, 105 grams of vegetarian chicken, 35 grams of yuba, and 730 grams of soy milk.
Soy and its products can be arranged in three meals a day, such as drinking a cup of soy milk in the morning and eating fried soybean sprouts at noon, Eat cabbage stewed tofu at night.
Fermented soy products contain a certain amount of vitamin B12. It is recommended that vegetarians consume 5-10 grams per day. Common ones include fermented bean curd, tempeh, Doubanjiang and so on.
< span>Nuts, mushrooms, and seaweed are indispensable
Nuts are rich in iron and zinc, and they are still plants Good source of protein. Seaweed (kelp, seaweed, wakame, etc.) is rich in minerals and rich in long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Mushrooms are rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, etc., and can be used as an important source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc for vegetarians. source.
< span>Choose cooking oil reasonably
Vegetarians should pay attention to choosing oil rich in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Edible oils such as linseed oil, perilla oil, walnut oil, canola oil, and soybean oil.
When cooking, choose cooking oil according to the required temperature and heat resistance. It is recommended that vegetarians use rapeseed oil or soybean oil for cooking. Flaxseed oil, perilla oil and walnut oil in cold dressing.