According to official data, the number of people with hypertension in China has reached 330 million, which is the main cause of dangerous diseases such as myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage. Among the consultations that Hua Zi encountered, the questions about high blood pressure were also the most.
Hua Zi found that many friends with high blood pressure can take medicine regularly, but in the process of treatment, because some small details are not well controlled, they cannot achieve the desired control effect , resulting in poor effect after medication, or increased adverse drug reactions.
One, low sodium and high blood pressure
Science has proven that sodium ions are one of the causes of high blood pressure, and potassium ions can counteract the blood pressure boosting effects of sodium ions. There is a theory that the unbalanced intake of sodium and potassium in Chinese dietary habits is the main cause of high blood pressure. Therefore for hypertensive patients, controlling the intake of sodium ions and increasing the intake of potassium ions is beneficial to control blood pressure.
Patients with high blood pressure, recommended daily salt intake between 3-5 grams. The low-sodium salt, which replaces part of sodium chloride with potassium chloride, is more suitable for hypertensive patients. Moreover, the use of thiazide diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, etc.) has the side effect of excreting potassium and sodium, and eating low-sodium salts can reduce the impact of side effects on blood pressure.
However, it should be noted that antihypertensive drugs such as puli drugs, sartans and potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, triamterene, etc.) have increased Potassium effect. Low sodium salts contain more potassium ions. When used together with the above drugs, it may cause hyperkalemia and lead to the risk of cardiac arrest.
People with renal insufficiency have a weakened ability to regulate electrolytes and are also prone to hyperkalemia. Therefore, people who use the above drugs and those with renal insufficiency should be careful not to consume low-sodium salts during antihypertensive treatment.
Two, try not to eat grapefruit (grapefruit)
For people with high blood pressure, eating more vegetables and fruits can help control blood pressure, but it is best not to eat grapefruit in fruits. Because grapefruit contains more furanocoumarins, it will interfere with the metabolic function of the liver drug enzyme CYP3A4.
And most drugs, such as dipines in antihypertensive drugs, some statins in lipid-lowering drugs, repaglinide in hypoglycemic drugs, etc., need to pass CYP3A4 Enzymes metabolize.
People who need long-term medication may inhibit the activity of the liver drug enzyme CYP3A4 after eating a large amount of grapefruit, resulting in slow drug metabolism and accumulation of poisoning. So for hypertensive patients, avoiding grapefruit as much as possible can reduce the risk of drug use.
Third, take medicine according to the time of blood pressure fluctuations
The vast majority of hypertensive patients take their medication after getting up in the morning. For people with normal blood pressure fluctuations, the morning medication is the most appropriate way. The daily fluctuation of human blood pressure is normally two peaks in the morning and afternoon, and a trough at night. Therefore, taking the medicine in the morning has a better control effect on the peak blood pressure during the day.
However, some hypertensive patients, especially elderly hypertensive patients, have irregular blood pressure fluctuations, and may have nocturnal blood pressure or early morning blood pressure. Take medicine before bedtime to better control blood pressure.
People with high blood pressure should do 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, which can judge blood pressure fluctuations and determine the most appropriate time to take the medicine.
4. Choice of antihypertensive drugs
In the choice of antihypertensive drugs, it is recommended to prefer long-acting antihypertensive drugs that are taken once a day, rather than short-term antihypertensive drugs that are taken more than three times a day. Antihypertensive drugs. Because long-acting antihypertensive drugs have long-lasting effects and slow metabolism, they have the best effect on blood pressure control. Short-acting antihypertensive drugs are likely to cause fluctuations in blood drug concentrations, and blood pressure will also fluctuate, which has the risk of inducing acute cardiac and cerebral events.
If initial blood pressure exceeds 160/100mmHg, it is recommended to choose a combination of two antihypertensive drugs. About 70% of hypertensive patients need two or more antihypertensive drugs. The combination of the above drugs can control blood pressure.
When taking medicines with the words slow-release and controlled-release, do not break or grind them unless it is stated in the instructions of the medicine that they can be taken apart. After taking slow-release and controlled-release drugs, don’t be nervous if you see the entire tablet excreted from the body, because some drugs are insoluble matrix tablets, and the tablets will not be broken after the drug is released.
To sum up, in the treatment of high blood pressure, it is necessary to understand the influence of drugs and low sodium salts and grapefruit, the relationship between the time of taking the drug and the fluctuation of blood pressure, and the choice of antihypertensive drugs. With many small details, you can increase the effect of the drug and reduce the risk of drug use without spending more money. The medicine should be used under the guidance of a doctor. If you have any doubts about the medicine, please consult your doctor or pharmacist. I am Huazi, a pharmacist. Welcome to follow me and share more health knowledge.