Introduction: According to the Dutch BNO news network reported on the 23rd, Italian researchers recently reported that a man in the country was detected to be infected with monkeypox virus and new crown virus at the same time. And HIV, for the first time in the world infected with three viruses at the same time.
In a recent study published in the Journal of Infection titled “First case of monkeypox virus, SARS-CoV-2 and HIV co-infection,” Researchers present the clinical characteristics of the first documented monkeypox virus, COVID-19 and HIV co-infection.
The patient is a 36-year-old Italian male who was in Spain from June 16 to 20, 2022 and developed fever (up to 39°C) 9 days later with sore throat, fatigue , headache, and right groin lymph node enlargement. On July 2, the patient was tested positive for the new crown. In the afternoon of the same day, the patient developed a rash on the left arm, and the next day, the trunk, lower extremities, face, and buttocks developed blisters. On July 5, as the vesicle continued to spread, it began to evolve into an umbilical pustule.
Figure 1 Research results (Source: )
On admission, the patient had spots on the body, including the palm of the right hand and the perianal area, with skin lesions in various stages of development, from small blisters to reddened annular pustules and umbilical plaques , Hepatosplenomegaly and enlargement were found in the right inguinal region. His pustular exudate and nasopharyngeal secretions were then sent to the laboratory for monkeypox virus testing and new coronavirus testing, and the results were positive for infection. In addition, HIV-1 results were also positive.
On the third day of admission, all of the patient’s skin lesions began to scab, almost all systemic symptoms were relieved, and relevant laboratory test values began to normalize. On the sixth day, although there were no new skin lesions, the patient tested positive for Covid-19 and monkeypox. As symptoms subsided, the patient went home for isolation. On July 19, the patient received another monkeypox oropharyngeal swab, which was still positive.
This case highlights the co-infection of monkeypox, COVID-19, and HIV. To avoid large-scale transmission, the researchers say patients with flu-like symptoms and who have recently traveled to areas with monkeypox outbreaks should be tested for Covid-19 and monkeypox, even if they do not have skin lesions.
Meanwhile, studies suggest that because sexual intercourse may be the primary mode of transmission of monkeypox, a complete STI screening is recommended. In addition, monkeypox oropharyngeal swabs were still positive after 20 days, suggesting that patients may still be infectious for several days in clinical remission. Therefore, doctors should take appropriate precautions. The researchers believe that because this is the only reported case of monkeypox virus, SARS-CoV-2 and HIV co-infection, there is still insufficient evidence to support that the combined infection may aggravate the patient’s condition.
Nolasco S, Vitale F, Geremia A, et al. First case of monkeypox virus, SARS-CoV-2 and HIV co-infection. J Infect. 2022 Aug 19:S0163 -4453(22)00479-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2022.08.014. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35995308.
Source | Bio Quest
Writing | Mu Zijiu
Edit | Swagpp