Thrombosis, in layman’s terms, is a “blood clot”. When it blocks blood vessel passages like a plug, causing a lack of blood supply to various parts of the body, it can cause a cascade of problems.
According to statistics, on a global scale, deaths caused by blood clots account for about 51%, far exceeding the deaths caused by tumors.
Where is the easiest place for thrombus to “hide”? “Life Times” interviewed experts to teach you the correct prevention.
Interviewed experts span>
Zhang Junfeng, Chief Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine< /span>
Ren Shiyan, Chief Physician of Laser Vascular Surgery, Aviation General Hospital< /strong>
Wang Zheng, Deputy Chief Physician, Emergency Department, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University
Thrombosis is most likely to be “hidden” in the lower extremities
There is a high probability of blood clots in the veins of the human body. Sitting or standing for a long time will cause the local blood flow to be too slow, and even blood stasis will occur, which is easy to clot in the veins.
Among them, deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities is the most common. This is like a water pipe. If there is too much scale and flows downstream, it will adhere to the pipe wall and cause silt over time.
Cause deep There are currently three recognized causes of venous thrombosis:
Venous blood flow stagnation Slow down
Long-term sitting and standing for a long time can easily lead to slowing of blood circulation, increase the contact time of platelets and coagulation factors with the vein wall, and easily cause thrombosis.
Venous endothelial injury
Venous endothelium has good anticoagulant and anti-platelet adhesion and aggregation functions. If the venous intima is damaged, it can lead to venous thrombosis, which is common in chemical, mechanical and infectious injuries.
Blood hypercoagulable state
A hypercoagulable state means that the blood becomes thicker. Blood is prone to coagulation in veins, coupled with endothelial damage or slow blood flow, deep vein thrombosis may form.
Once the deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities dislodges to the pulmonary artery, it may cause pulmonary embolism. Mild cases may cause coughing, chest tightness, and suffocation, and severe cases may even cause sudden death.
There are early warning signs of lower extremity venous thrombosis
In the process of slowly blocking blood vessels, Blood clots will send warning signs to people countless times. In these two situations, it is necessary to be alert to lower extremity venous thrombosis.
Intermittent claudication< /p>
When the blood vessels of the lower limbs are ischemic, it is easy to cause leg pain when walking, which can be relieved after rest. Walking pain occurs again, that is, “intermittent claudication”.
If the arterial blockage of the lower extremities is neglected and the disease progresses further, it may lead to severe ischemia of the lower extremities, and pain will occur even if you do not walk. If it continues to develop, there may be limb ulcers, wounds that cannot heal, and even tissue necrosis.< /p>
Diabetic patients are more likely to have lower extremity lesions, so special attention should be paid.
Unilateral lower extremity edema
Long-term bed rest, sedentary, dehydration and other patients are prone to lower limb swelling and pain. If two The degree of edema in one foot or two legs is inconsistent, or one side is not swollen and the other side is swollen, which is often the manifestation of deep vein thrombosis of lower extremities.
If you feel chest tightness and shortness of breath when you stand up after sitting or lying in bed for a long time, or even faint suddenly, you should be alert to the possibility that the lower extremity vein thrombosis has fallen off and blocked the pulmonary artery Severe pulmonary embolism can lead to sudden death, so you should see a doctor as soon as possible.
< strong>5 types of people are easy to be “tied”
In general, the following groups of people are prone to venous thrombosis and need to be extra vigilant.
- People who take planes and trucks for a long time, the space is narrow and cramped, resulting in inability to move their legs;
- Usually have varicose veins
- People who often have swollen lower limbs;
- People who need to stand or sit for a long time;
- People who have fractured lower limbs, and people with high blood fat and People with high blood viscosity.
It should be noted that excessive exercise can cause Injured people are also prone to this situation.
- One movement self-assessment of lower extremity venous thrombosis:< /span>
If you want to test whether the veins in your lower extremities are blocked, you can try Leg extension ankle test:
Straighten the lower limbs, passively or actively do excessive dorsiflexion of the ankle joint (ie hook the toes), if there is severe pain in the calf, it indicates that there may be thrombosis in the deep vein.
If you have the above conditions, it is recommended to go to the Department of Vascular Surgery for a clear diagnosis and take appropriate treatment according to the condition.
Reduce the risk of thrombosis in an all-round way
Timely change the bad lifestyle, in order to be comprehensive Reduce the risk of blood clots. Pay attention to 7 points daily to help promote blood circulation.
Try to avoid prolonged sitting
If it is inevitable to sit for a long time, it is best to stand up and stretch every 30 to 60 minutes.
When taking a plane or train, stand up and walk around the aisle from time to time. Long-distance driving is best to stop every once in a while and go to the service station to rest for a while.
Do more ankle pump exercises
People who sit and stand for a long time can often do “ankle pump exercises”. Through the movement of the ankle joint, it acts like a pump to promote blood circulation in the lower limbs.
Method: Lie down or sit, relax your thighs, within the limit of no pain or only slight pain, slowly and forcefully hook your feet up at the maximum angle, and hold for 10 seconds Left and right, then let the toes down. It is advisable to practice for 5 minutes every hour.
More coarse grains, less greasy
Do not eat too greasy at ordinary times, eat more low-fat, high dietary fiber foods, such as cereals, beans, fruits and vegetables, etc.
Replenish water frequently to prevent blood stickiness
When the body is dehydrated, the blood becomes thicker and the flow slows down. Pay attention to replenish water, drink small amount and many times.
Shoes and socks should be loose
Do not wear tight clothes, shoes and socks at ordinary times. If necessary, medical elastic stockings can be used to put pressure on the calf and promote blood circulation.
Take medication as prescribed< /p>
People whose blood is in a hypercoagulable state can use anticoagulant drugs prophylactically under the guidance of a doctor.
Regular physical examination for high-risk groups
People who sit for a long time, smokers, people with high blood pressure, people with high blood sugar, people with a family history of venous thrombosis, and people who have had blood clots before, it is recommended Have a vascular ultrasonography every year. ▲
Editor of this issue: Yang Meng
Source: “Life Times” Original< /p>