1 hour a day, half a year to relieve brain shrinkage? Summary of the highlights of the global conference

< strong>▎WuXi Contex Content Team Editor

A few days ago, the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC 2022) opened simultaneously in San Diego, USA and online. AAIC is one of the world’s largest and most influential international conferences dedicated to the science of dementia. Today, the WuXi AppTec content team will share with readers the latest developments in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease at AAIC 2022.

No injections and no drugs, innovative therapy to relieve White matter atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease patientsThe white matter in the brain consists of nerve fibers surrounded by myelin sheaths. If the neurons in the brain are compared to a computer that processes information, the white matter is the data line that connects the computer and transmits information. The volume of white matter decreases as people age, and this phenomenon is especially severe in people with Alzheimer’s disease. Because white matter is responsible for connecting various brain regions, it plays a key role in transmitting neural signals. Preventing or reducing its shrinkage may slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Cognito Therapeutics was founded by MIT optogenetics pioneer Ed Boyden and Alzheimer’s researcher Lihui Cai. Papers published in Cell and Neuron by Prof. Lihui Cai’s team show that the use of acousto-optic stimulation at a frequency of 40 hertz (Hz) can stimulate a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease The response of microglia helps clear amyloid, but also maintains the number and health of synapses.

sound of ▲40Hz stimulation Acousto-optic stimulation improves animal cognition and amyloid clearance in a mouse AD model (Image source: Reference [5])

Based on this research, Cognito has developed an acousto-optic stimulation device for use in humans that is so easy to use that patients can use it themselves at home. This medical device has been granted breakthrough medical device designation by the US FDA.

Image source: Reference[1]

In this clinical trial, which presented data at AAIC 2022, Alzheimer’s patients received 1 hour of daily sound and light stimulation at home while a placebo group received a sham treatment. Analysis of the data after 6 months showed an increase in mean white matter volume compared to baseline in patients who received 40Hz acousto-optic stimulation, while a decrease in white matter volume in the control group. At the same time, this treatment regimen showed good safety and tolerability, and was easy to integrate into the daily life of patients.

yiban.io”>The effect of acousticlight stimulation therapy on the white matter of the brain in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (Image source: Reference [1])

“Our unique stimulation therapy reduces white matter atrophy at 6 months, has axonal protection in Alzheimer’s disease patients , the potential to prevent myelin and oligodendrocyte damage.said Mr. Brent Vaughan, CEO of Cognito, which expects to initiate a pivotal clinical trial this year to further evaluate the potential of this therapy in Alzheimer’s disease. How to use blood tests in Alzheimer’s disease care, expert panel issues recommendationsRecently, by Al An expert panel of clinicians and researchers convened by the Zheimer’s Association issued recommendations on how to use blood biomarkers in Alzheimer’s care. The potential of diagnostic workflows for Zheimer’s disease, which have already played a role in improving clinical trial design. However, blood biomarker-based tests, if they are to be used as stand-alone diagnostic tools in general clinics, remain Validation in a more diverse patient population is required.


>Blood biomarkers associated with Alzheimer’s disease include amyloid fragment Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, phosphorylated Tau protein, nerve fiber light chain (NfL) associated with nerve injury, and astrocytes Cell activation-related GFAP. The article points out that these markers are currently the most in-depth research and have shown a strong correlation with Alzheimer’s disease. The research team suggests that These biomarkers can be used in clinical practice The trial’s (preliminary) screening approach identified patients who were eligible for treatment with the investigational therapy, who still require PET or CSF testing to confirm Alzheimer’s symptoms. The panel also recommends use in specialized memory clinics Blood testing as part of the diagnostic process for patients who already have cognitive symptoms.Also, the panel does not recommend the use of these biomarkers in general outpatient clinics biomarkers to screen the general population for disease risk, as most of the current research on these biomarkers is based on a more homogeneous patient population in clinical trials. Their performance in a very heterogeneous general population has not been tested experimentally. Experts also do not recommend using these biomarkers as the primary endpoint in pivotal clinical trials, but in adaptive trials, some biomarkers can be used to support decisions in clinical trials, such as helping decide whether to Clinical trials should continue.

Potential future applications of blood-based biomarkers(Image source: Reference [6])

“Blood-based biomarkers show potential in improving, and even redefining, Alzheimer’s disease diagnostics.” Maria C., one of the authors and chief scientific officer of the Alzheimer’s Association “We’ve come a long way,” said Dr. Carrillo. Dr. Carrillo said in a blog post on the Alzheimer’s Association website that he recently worked with Alzheimer’s The credibility of some of the findings related to Haimer’s disease has been questioned. While we can argue about different signaling pathways, we must agree on the importance of scientific integrity and those who turn their backs on scientific integrity should not be honored and funded. Related reading:Alzheimer’s disease research has been skewed for 16 years? Amyloid has long been not the only focus of global R&DAt the same time, she also pointed out that scientific progress is not based on one person, one paper or one hypothesis. Science is the ultimate team sport, and scientific discoveries and advances emerge from the exchanges and divergent perspectives of the scientific community as a whole. At this conference, more than 4,000 scientific studies will be shared with colleagues in the research community to help everyone learn and promote the progress of science together. Looking forward to the power of the group to bring more breakthroughs in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis and treatment.

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[1] Alzheimer’s Association Launches ALZ-NET: A Long-Term Data Collection and Sharing Network for New Treatments. Retrieved August 1, 2022, from https://aaic.alz.org/releases_2022/alzheimers -network-alznet-registry.asp

[2] Alzheimer’s Association Global Workgroup Releases Recommendations About Use of Alzheimer’s “Blood Tests”. Retrieved August 1, 2022, from https:/ /aaic.alz.org/releases_2022/blood-biomarkers-appropriate-use-recommendations.asp

[3] Persistent Loss of Smell Due to COVID-19 Closely Connected to Long -Lasting Cognitive Problems. Retrieved August 1, 2022, from https://aaic.alz.org/releases_2022/covid-19-dementia-risk.asp

[4] Cognito Therapeutics Announces Proprietary Gamma Sensory Stimulation for 6-Months Reduces White Matter Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Retrieved August 1, 2022, from https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220801005207/en

[5] Martorell et al, (2019). Multi-sensory Gamma Stimulation Ameliorates Alzheimer’s-Associated Pathology and Improves Cognition. Cell, https://doi.org/10.1016/j. cell.2019.02.014.

[6] Hansson et al., (2022). The Alzheimer’s Association appropriate use recommendations for blood biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, DOI: 10.1002/alz.12756

[7] A Renaissance for Alzheimer’s and Dementia Science Brings Vigorous Debate. Retrieved August 1, 2022, from https://www. alz.org/blog/alz/july-2022/a-renaissance-for-alzheimers-and-dementia-science?_gl=1*i0kq20*_ga*MjU1NDI1NDc2LjE2NTYzNDE3MjA.*_ga_9JTEWVX24V*MTY1OTM4NzM3MS4xMy4xLjE2NTkzODc5ODYuMTA.&_ga=2.131719375.194984054. 1659366424-255425476.1656341720

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