What did Li Bai mean when he laughed at Du Fu and said he was “too thin”? Ouyang Xiu explained


I encountered such a problem a few days ago: Li Bai “jokes” Du Fu, saying that he is “too thin”, what does it mean? ​

This question originates from a poem written by Li Bai to Du Fu, titled “A Play Gives Du Fu”

When a meal meets Du Fu on the top of a mountain, it is best to wear a hat on the top of the mountain. By asking not to be too thin, it is always hard to write poetry in the past.

Slim, what does it mean? Ouyang Xiu explained.

As for whether Li Bai laughed at Du Fu, and why did he laugh at Du Fu, later poetry critics also There are many arguments, let’s see who is more reasonable.

One, too thin, is a vernacular

The poet Ouyang Xiu of the Northern Song Dynasty explained too thin in his “Six One Poems”:

Li Bai ” “Playing on Du Fu” says: “By asking not to be too thin, it is always painful to write poems in the past.” Like life” and so on.

Too thin means “too thin”. Sheng is a modal particle. Ouyang Xiu also gave an example, which is similar to the folk vernacular such as “what is life” and “what is life”.

This kind of vernacular can be found everywhere in Shi Puji’s “Five Lantern Festival” in Song Dynasty:< /p>

In the past, there was a scholar who believed that there were no ghosts, and a ghost scolded him, “Why do you argue with me!” What do you mean? ” The master put his hand on his forehead and said, “Why is it like life? “He said, “It’s just like the five patriarchs made a bird and a dove with their hands, and said, “Guguagua.” And what? “

Li Bai’s use of vernacular into the poem is a bit like a joke: Xiao Du, why are you so thin? It must have been too hard to write poetry before.

The title of this poem It’s “A Play for Du Fu”. As a well-known elder, it’s not too much for Li Bai to joke with his “little” brother.

However, why did Li Bai say this joke? The so-called Du Fu’s poems are bitter. Is there something in his words?

Let’s see who the descendants are How did you analyze it?

Second, Li Bai and Du Fu mocked each other?

In the Southern Song Dynasty Luo Dajing “Helin Yulu”, Volume A, Volume 6, about Li Bai and Du Fu’s poetic style Different, I wrote this paragraph:

Li Taibai fought a hundred articles, and the aid pen was established. Du Zimei changed her long yin, and kept her words meticulously. The two Gonggai also laughed at each other, and Taibai gave Zimei a message: ” By asking why he was too thin, he only suffered from writing poems in the past. “The bitter word, ridiculed his trapped carving. Zimei sent Tai Baiyun: “When is a bottle of wine, it is important and detailed. “The word “fine”, ridiculed that it is not meticulous. “Helin Yulu”

Luo Dajing roughly means that Li Bai’s poems can be described with the word “quick”: a hundred chapters in one fight, The support is completed.

When Du Fu writes poems, he works slowly and works hard: change it and sing a long song. The words were meticulous.

So Li Bai and Du Fu exchanged poems with each other, and joked with each other about the style of each other’s poems. Du Fu’s poems should be “heavy and detailed” with Li Bai. Thick lines, although unrestrained, are not “sophisticated”. Li Bai said that Du Fu was too scoundrel and hard to write poetry, but he said that Du Fu was too “carved” in writing poetry and made himself too tired.

Du Fu When writing poetry, be careful with every word, and change it to long recitation. The purpose of long recitation is to discover the shortcomings of phonology, and I will not let go of a single word. This word may be inappropriate in meaning, or it may be auditory ( rhyme) is not suitable.

Because Du Fu pursues perfection too much, so Li Bai says he is hard to write poetry.

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A little earlier, Ge Lifang said in “Yangyu Yangqiu” that Li Bai said that Du Fu’s poems were bitter and that he was “ridiculous about his liver and kidneys”:

Du Shi thinks and speaks bitterly Strange, Li Shi thinks fast and speaks eloquently. Du Zhong said that Li Bai has many poems, such as “Li Bai fights a hundred poems”, such as “fresh Yu Kaifu, Junyi Bao joins the army”, “When is a wine, important and detailed essays “The sentence seems to ridicule him for being too handsome and quick. Li Bai commented on Du Fu, and said: “When you meet Du Fu on the top of a mountain, you will wear a hat on your head. In order to ask why he is too thin, it is only for the sake of writing poetry. “It seems to ridicule him that he is too worried about the liver and kidney.

​Du Mu also said: “Du Shihan’s pen is worried to read, like Qian Magu scratching at the itching. This sorrow seems to refer to the emotional expression in poetry, but there are different understandings.

Let’s see what Meng Di said below.

Three, the rhythm battle?

Luo Dajing said that Li Bai thought that Du Fu was “distressed and carved”, and Ge Lifang believed that Li Bai said that Du Fu was “too worried about the liver and kidney”. These two are different understandings. The former said that Du Fu’s poems were too elaborate, The latter said that the emotions in Du Fu’s poems were too sad.

Meng Di of the Tang Dynasty has another interpretation, in his “Poetry of Poetry · Gao Yi” Said:

(Li Bai) said in his commentary on the poem: “Since Liang and Chen, he has been very bright and thin. Li Erji has few rhythms and poems. Taste said, “Xingzhi is profound, five words are not as good as four words, and seven words are too extravagant.Let the haiku be bound in the tone of voice. Therefore, the play Du said: “I meet Du Fu on the top of the mountain, and wear a hat on his head. By asking why he is too thin, he always suffers from writing poems in the past. “It’s not like it’s restrained.

Meng Di said that Li Bai’s criticism of the early Tang Dynasty’s poems had two problems. First, it continued the problem of “beautiful thinness” since the Liang and Chen dynasties, which refers to the content

Secondly, there are also Qi Liang Yongming poet Shen Yue (Shen Xiuwen) and others, who pay attention to the problem of rhythm. Now it is Li Bai who restores the style of the ancients.< /p>

Meng Di went on to say, so Chen Zi’ang and Li Bai’s poems contain very few metrical poems. Li Bai once said , if there is sustenance, subtlety, and profound meaning in writing poetry, five-character poems are not as good as four-characters, and seven-character poems are not as good as five-characters. What’s more, what about the metrical requirements?

As we all know, from the beginning of Qiliang, metrical Poetry was born, and the system was perfect in the early Tang Dynasty. During the period of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, metrical poetry was also included in the imperial examinations, so poets must learn to write metrical poetry when writing poetry.

The seven-character poetry was also accompanied by metrical poetry in the Tang Dynasty. The soundness of poetry has reached its peak, among which Du Fu’s contribution is indelible.

Li Bai and Chen Zi’ang raised the banner of retro and wrote many excellent ancient style poems (non-metrical poems). He was too persistent and raised a little objection, so he laughed at Du Fu’s “poems are hard”.


Han Yu once said in a poem: “Li Du’s article is here, and the brilliance is bright.” Han Yu scoffed at the controversy over Li Bai and Du Fu in the middle Tang Dynasty, and wrote:

I don’t know how stupid people are , that is used to slander and hurt. The beetle shakes the big tree, which is ridiculous and over-confident.

Li Bai and Du Fu are two monuments in Tang poetry, and the two cherish each other and respect each other. This was their last encounter in 746 AD.

Li Bai at that time was already famous all over the world, while Du Fu was not only unknown at the time, but also was not famous even after his death. Li Bai wrote poems to Du Fu, which was a kind ridicule of the elder brother to the younger brother.

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