Introduction: Hypertension refers to the relevant clinical features of elevated arterial blood pressure accompanied by severe damage to multiple organs and body functions.
According to the statistics of the 2021 “Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Blood Pressure”, the number of sudden deaths of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases caused by hypertension in China About 586,600 people, among them, the most common problems are cerebral thrombosis, cerebral infarction, arterial infarction, myocardial infarction and so on.
Now, high blood pressure is no longer a patent of middle-aged and elderly people, and the disease is getting younger and younger. The risk of hypertension among people under the age of 35 in China is as high as 31.82%.
Hypertension is an irreversible chronic disease. Once high blood pressure occurs, you need to take antihypertensive drugs for a long time To help control blood pressure in a stable state, if the blood pressure is always high, it is easy to damage the body, and it is easy to cause serious complications.
What are the dangers of high blood pressure?
1. The damage of hypertension to the heart is mainly manifested in the following two aspects:
①, damage to the heart and blood vessels, high blood pressure mainly damages the coronary arteries of the heart and causes coronary atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
Left ventricular load increases, myocardial strength increases, myocardial oxygen consumption increases, when coronary atherosclerosis, When merged, coronary blood flow reserve capacity decreases, myocardial oxygen supply decreases, resulting in angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.
②, Hypertension damages the heart itself, as the arterial pressure continues to rise, it increases the burden on the heart , form compensatory, left ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular hypertrophy is prone to occur, and then lead to heart dilation, heart damage caused by high blood pressure can lead to arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
2. Cerebrovascular injury, dizziness and headache are the most common brain symptoms of hypertension
Patients often show persistent dull discomfort, frequent dizziness will hinder thinking, and reduce work efficiency and concentration. Decline of memory.
Clinically, acute cerebrovascular diseases caused by high blood pressure mainly include cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral embolism and other lesion bleeding The amount and first aid of cerebral hemorrhage have a great relationship with the prognosis of patients. Generally speaking, the mortality rate is very high, and even survivors may suffer sequelae such as hemiplegia and aphasia.
3. Kidney damage High blood pressure and kidney failure have a close and complicated relationship
On the one hand, high blood pressure can cause kidney damage, on the other On the one hand, kidney damage worsens the prognosis of high blood pressure. Generally speaking, the damage of blood pressure to the kidney is a very long process. Because the kidney has a long compensatory ability, the only symptom that can reflect the disorder of kidney self-regulation at the beginning is nocturia increase.
Long-term high blood pressure can lead to renal arteriosclerosis, when renal insufficiency, further development of urine output significantly reduces blood Non-protein nitrogen creatinine urea nitrogen increases systemic edema, electrolyte disturbance and acid-base balance, once renal dysfunction or uremia develops damage.
How much blood pressure do you need to take antihypertensive drugs?
High blood pressure up to 140/90 mmHg can usually be treated with antihypertensive drugs.
If the patient’s blood pressure continues to rise and symptoms such as vomiting, dizziness, headache, and nausea occur, they should be taken in time Pressure medicine to control blood pressure within the normal range.
At the same time, patients should rest in bed to relieve physical symptoms. In daily life, patients can adjust Lifestyle, such as following a low-fat diet, quitting smoking and drinking, and exercising moderately.
If the patient suffers from mild hypertension, it is recommended not to take it blindlyDrugs can be used to lower blood pressure by adjusting lifestyle, adopting a low-salt and low-fat diet, quitting smoking and drinking, and exercising moderately. If the patient suffers from secondary hypertension, drugs can usually be taken to help blood pressure return to normal.
Try not to take the 5 antihypertensive drugs for a long time, most patients are still taking them, doctor: change them as soon as possible Medicine
1, Nifedipine Ordinary Tablets The effect of the drug is very fast, usually 15 minutes after oral administration, but the effect can only last for 4-8 hours, and it needs to be taken several times a day, and it is difficult to achieve the effect within 24 hours Buck.
It is difficult for such drugs to control the extent and speed of blood pressure drop, which will lead to blood pressure fluctuations, which will affect the body It has adverse effects and has been replaced by nifedipine controlled-release tablets and sustained-release tablets.
2, compound preparation containing a variety of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine< /span>, like compound Apocynum tablets, which contains dihydrazine, which can reflex, stimulate sympathetic nerves, increase myocardial contractility, heart rate and myocardial oxygen consumption, and induce cardiovascular event, causing skin damage.
Compound Jiangya Tablets and Jiangya Zero, containing reserpine, reserpine It will cause central depression, and it is not easy to exhaust the dose of neurotransmitters. In addition, a slight overdose of drugs may cause a severe drop in blood pressure, or even drop the blood pressure to 0, which is very dangerous.
3. Drugs containing clonidine , such as Clonidine Tablets or Zhenju Jiangya Tablets, the clonidine component of these drugs is a central depressant, and long-term large doses can cause inflammation, hypotension, shock, and even circulation Respiratory failure poses a very high risk to the body and is not suitable for long-term use.
4. Alpha receptor blockers, usually called Prazosin may cause severe orthostatic hypotension, its clinical benefit is not obvious, and its protective effect on the heart, brain and kidney is not clear, and it is also excluded from the first-line drug.
5. There are some pure Chinese medicine health products Claiming to lower blood pressure, if these health products can lower blood pressure, then some western medicine ingredients are often added to them, and it is not safe to take them.
How to choose the right antihypertensive drug?
1. Can it lower blood pressure stably?
To evaluate whether the current antihypertensive drugs can stably control blood pressure, not only to meet the blood pressure standard, Also make sure your blood pressure remains stable.
2. Any side effects
For each antihypertensive drug, there are advantages and disadvantages, and each antihypertensive drug also has side effects, but each person’s body age Different from the severity of the disease, the side effects of the same drug are different for each person.
For example, if some hypertensive patients take flat antihypertensive drugs, they may experience ankle edema, but some people This symptom does not occur.
3. Whether it can protect the target organ< /span>
The ultimate goal of treating hypertension is not to lower blood pressure, but to protect the heart, brain, kidneys and other target organs to prevent complications , any antihypertensive drug that lowers blood pressure and protects target organs is a good drug.
4 、Is it convenient for patients to take it?
Most hypertensive patients need to take medicine for life, but the medication compliance Relatively poor sex, it is easy to miss or forget to take medicine, so you must choose long-acting antihypertensive medicine, so that it is convenient to take once a day and you will not forget.