Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD for short, is one of the leading causes of disability and death from chronic diseases. Among our compatriots, the prevalence of COPD in people over 40 years old is about 13.7%, and the number of deaths caused by this accounts for 31.1% of the total COPD deaths in the world. In COPD patients, an average of 0.5 to 3.5 exacerbations occur each year, and patients will be hospitalized many times due to the disease. So, what incentives can lead to acute exacerbation of COPD? How to prevent it so as to avoid multiple hospitalizations? We will now explain the relevant points.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by inflammation of the bronchi and destruction of the alveoli that cause airflow obstruction and difficulty breathing. Acute exacerbation of COPD is the worsening of respiratory symptoms beyond daily changes, with dyspnea, increased sputum volume, purulent sputum, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. The patient had labored breathing, decreased oxygen saturation, and increased respiratory rate and heart rate. In severe cases, patients experience altered mental status, use of accessory respiratory muscles, cyanosis, and hemodynamic instability.
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or AECOPD, is characterized by an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms that requires additional treatment. Typical manifestations are increased dyspnea, increased cough, increased sputum volume, and purulent sputum. AECOPD, the most common cause, is respiratory infection, 78% of patients, with clear evidence of viral or bacterial infection, in addition to smoking, air pollution, inhaled allergens, sedative medication, discontinuation of COPD inhalation medication , pneumothorax, pleural effusion, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, etc., are also related factors that induce acute exacerbation of COPD.
Bacterial infection is the main cause of COPD exacerbation, with a prevalence of about 26% to 81%. It is a common pathogen, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae. Notably, resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise and, therefore, requires continuous monitoring. In addition, about 9% to 19% of patients will have acute exacerbation of COPD combined with bacterial and viral infections, which will increase the difficulty of treatment. Outdoor air pollution is an important cause of acute exacerbation of COPD, and indoor second-hand smoke and biofuel pollution are also factors that cannot be ignored. In addition, lower temperatures may lead to acute exacerbations of COPD, and this effect is more pronounced when the temperature is below 5 degrees Celsius. Therefore, after cold weather, COPD patients need to strengthen preventive measures to avoid exacerbation of the disease.
Patients with COPD who may have cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle dysfunction, diabetes or metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, depression, lung cancer, patients with comorbidities, decreased activity tolerance, Reduced quality of life. In such patients, the duration of hospital stay is extended by 5 to 13 days when an acute exacerbation occurs. Epidemiological surveys show that the rate of readmission within 12 days of AECOPD patients is as high as 52.6%. In patients with multiple hospitalizations, accelerated lung function decline and AECOPD mortality were significantly increased. Therefore, strengthening prevention and avoiding acute exacerbation of the disease are measures that must be taken by patients with COPD.
After the weather is cold, COPD patients need to take preventive measures against the incentives in order to avoid acute exacerbation of the disease. First of all, it is to prevent infection, vaccinate against influenza and pneumonia in time, quit smoking, and avoid the influence of second-hand smoke, indoor and outdoor smoke or dust, minimize entering crowded places, pay attention to indoor ventilation, and maintain proper air humidity. Secondly, patients can improve their immunity through appropriate physical activities and nutritional supplements, and exercise methods such as pursed lip breathing, balloon blowing, and candle blowing can help patients maintain and enhance alveolar elasticity and improve lung function. If the patient has respiratory failure in the past, home oxygen therapy should be adhered to to prevent hypoxia. Finally, patients should standardize treatment and regulate their emotions to reduce anxiety and tension.
Slow resistancePulmonary exacerbations may occur rapidly and without warning. Therefore, patients should learn to recognize. Seek medical attention if you experience worsening wheezing, persistent cough, shallower or faster breathing, increased sputum, yellow-green-yellow or tan sputum, fever, drowsiness or altered consciousness, or swelling of your feet or ankles. In severe cases, hospitalization is required. The main treatment measures are oxygen therapy, application of glucocorticoids, anti-infection, use of bronchodilators or respiratory stimulants, and ventilator support. Acute exacerbation of COPD requires timely treatment. If breathing worsens, lower extremity edema, chest pain, symptoms cannot be improved after taking medicines at home, or there is a change in consciousness, you should seek medical attention immediately to avoid delaying the disease.
To whomever you love, pass on your health.