Chronic kidney disease, with gender characteristics, can female patients still have normal fertility?

The incidence of chronic kidney disease in adults is about 10%, and the number of female chronic kidney disease patients worldwide has exceeded 195 million, and it is the 8th cause of death among women. 600,000 people die every day. Chronic kidney disease can lead to renal failure, and women are more vulnerable to health damage due to autoimmune diseases, pregnancy and other factors, and should actively take targeted countermeasures.

Current research shows that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in women is significantly higher than in men. Relevant epidemiological surveys in my country show that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in women is 14.69%, while the prevalence in men is 6.77%. However, the proportion of men with end-stage renal disease is higher than that of women. This result shows that chronic kidney disease has gender characteristics. However, other studies have shown that although female patients with chronic kidney disease progress to end-stage renal disease at a slower rate, the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients is significantly increased.

Chronic kidney disease has specific health effects for women, and 4 unique risk factors increase women’s risk of developing chronic kidney disease. The first is autoimmune diseases. Due to the influence of estrogen levels, women are at a higher risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases. The second item is the lack of physiological characteristics and health education, which makes women more prone to urinary tract infections. The third item is pregnancy, which leads to an increased risk of pyelonephritis, acute renal failure, postpartum idiopathic acute renal failure, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and other diseases, resulting in renal damage. People with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk of developing kidney damage if they become pregnant. The fourth item is drug-induced renal damage during the treatment of women’s special diseases. For example, chemotherapy for breast cancer can cause secondary kidney damage.

Because the hypothalamus, ovary, and pituitary axis are affected by renal endocrine dysfunction, female patients with chronic kidney disease will develop follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone deficiency, causing Low estradiol levels interfere with ovulation, leading to abnormal uterine bleeding and, in some patients, anemia due to heavy bleeding. These physiological changes will adversely affect women’s psychology, causing anxiety or depression. Also, it can lead to reduced fertility.

Pregnancy and chronic kidney disease may interact. Acute kidney injury, or preeclampsia, can lead to chronic kidney disease. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication caused by placental insufficiency or disease factors. It can lead to high blood pressure and kidney damage in pregnant women. It will not only affect the health of pregnant women, but also increase perinatal death, premature birth, and intrauterine development of the fetus. risk of obstacles. Therefore, patients with chronic kidney disease, or those with risk factors for the disease, such as pyelonephritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, need a detailed medical evaluation when trying to conceive.

Pregnancy may pose multiple risks to people with chronic kidney disease, such as high blood pressure, kidney disease progression, early initiation of dialysis, eclampsia, and preterm birth, small gestational age, natural Miscarriage and perinatal death. At the same time, patients with chronic kidney disease need drug treatment, and some drugs are used with caution or prohibited in pregnant women, which will bring great trouble to the choice of treatment plan. At present, the mainstream view is that patients with stage 1 or 2 chronic kidney disease, if the blood pressure is normal and the 24-hour urine protein level is low, allow a normal pregnancy. However, during pregnancy, an examination should be performed every 1 to 2 weeks to monitor renal function and fetal condition. If the 24-hour urine protein level exceeds 3 grams, relevant treatment should be considered.

Women should pay close attention to body changes in their daily life. If 4 abnormal phenomena are found, a comprehensive examination of renal function is required in time. The first is urinationdecreased or hematuria. The second type is that the foam in the urine increases, which may be due to impaired renal function and the appearance of urinary protein. The third type is increased blood pressure. 90% of patients with kidney disease will have high blood pressure, and the continuous increase in blood pressure will increase the burden on the kidneys and aggravate renal damage. The fourth type is the aggravation of anemia, because the kidneys produce erythropoietin. If the kidney function is damaged and the level of erythropoietin decreases, it will cause or aggravate anemia.

To whomever you love, pass on your health.