Review of this article:
Zhang JieLi General of the People’s Liberation Army The Fifth Medical Center of the Hospital, Deputy Chief Nurse
Zhang Xin Xin The Fifth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital, Deputy Chief Physician p>
Why is meal-sharing a healthy eating habit? Why beware of mosquito breeding in the living environment? Why can we use hugs to convey encouragement to AIDS patients?
Because gastrointestinal transmission and insect vector transmission are the transmission routes of infectious diseases; blood, body fluids and mother-to-child transmission are the transmission routes of AIDS, but physical contact during hugging is not. Yes, these are actually related to scientific infectious disease prevention. Respiratory transmission, digestive tract transmission, contact transmission, insect vector transmission, blood or body fluid transmission and mother-to-child transmission are the six ways of infectious disease transmission.
1. Respiratory transmission
After the pathogen is excreted from the body of infection In the droplets or aerosols in the air, the human body can cause infection after inhalation.
For example: measles, tuberculosis, chickenpox, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome and novel coronavirus pneumonia, etc.
2. Digestive spread
Contaminate food, water or tableware after the pathogen is discharged , People are infected by mouth when eating and drinking, and infants and young children can be infected through contaminated milk sources or feeding bottles and pacifiers.
For example: bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera, rotavirus infection, etc.
3. Contact transmission
The pathogen is transmitted from the source of infection After being excreted from the body, contaminated soil, articles, etc., people are infected when they come into direct or indirect contact with pollutants.
For example: leptospirosis, schistosomiasis and hookworm. Some diseases may also cause infection when they are in close contact in daily life, such as influenza, diphtheria, etc. Dirty sexual contact can spread AIDS, viral hepatitis B, viral hepatitis C, syphilis, gonorrhea, etc.
4. Insect vector transmission
Mainly blood-sucking arthropods (such as mosquitoes, lice, rat fleas, sandflies, hard ticks, chiggers, etc.) transmit pathogens to others when they bite.
For example: malaria, Lyme disease, epidemic typhus, etc.
5, blood, body fluid transmission< p>
Pathogens can be transmitted to others through blood transfusion, application of blood products, organ transplantation, etc.
For example: AIDS, viral hepatitis B, viral hepatitis C, etc.
6. Mother-to-child transmission
Some infectious diseases , whose pathogens can infect the fetus through the placenta, or through the birth canal during natural childbirth.
For example: AIDS, hepatitis B virus, etc. Another part can cause upward sexual transmission, that is, pathogens reach the chorion or placenta from the vagina of pregnant women to cause intrauterine infection of the fetus, such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, etc.
The spread and prevalence of infectious diseases are influenced by natural and social factors.
The survival and reproduction of all pathogens can be affected by natural factors such as geography, weather, and ecological conditions.control.
Some viruses are not resistant to high temperature, and the mucosal defense capacity of the human respiratory tract is reduced in winter and spring, so respiratory infectious diseases such as measles and chickenpox are prone to occur In winter and spring.
Schistosomes must depend on snails to survive, and snails can only live in water areas with mild climate, abundant rainfall and overgrown weeds. Therefore, in my country, schistosomiasis is mostly prevalent in the areas south of the Yangtze River.
Epidemic Japanese Encephalitis is only transmitted by mosquitoes, and mosquitoes require specific temperature and humidity for reproduction, so in my country, epidemic B Type encephalitis basically occurs in summer and autumn.
Social factors affecting infectious diseases include social system, economic status, living conditions, educational level, hygiene concept, etc.
After the founding of New China, the superiority of the socialist system continued to emerge, the people’s living standards continued to improve, and the state implemented a planned immunization program. , the incidence of many infectious diseases has been significantly reduced or nearly eliminated.
However, while the national economy is growing day by day, due to factors such as population mobility, environmental pollution, and behavioral changes, the incidence of certain infectious diseases is gradually increasing. increase, such as AIDS; or the emergence of some new infectious diseases, such as SARS, new coronavirus pneumonia, etc., these should arouse our attention.
:This article is reproduced from the WeChat public account “Science China” (ID: Science_China).
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