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In your daily life, have you ever had such an experience:
Squatting on the toilet for too long will make you feel dizzy when you suddenly get up, and your eyes will turn black. If so, be on your guard, this may be a sign of orthostatic hypotension before it occurs.
Orthostatic hypotension is low blood pressure that occurs suddenly, and the patient may faint suddenly, or fall unconscious, bruising certain parts of the body; severe Falls, fractures, or other diseases of the body, leading to ischemia and hypoxia.
01 span>Symptoms of Orthostatic HypotensionOrthostatic hypotension is a manifestation of abnormal blood pressure regulation, that is, a sharp drop in blood pressure when the body suddenly stands upright . Most patients present with dizziness, vertigo, blurred vision, narrow vision, and sudden darkness . Some patients show signs of weakness, fatigue, nausea, palpitations, or headaches. A small number of patients may also present with syncope, orthostatic dyspnea, chest pain, neck and shoulder pain, etc. Patients with orthostatic hypotension will have the above symptoms after standing, mild cases may only have a little discomfort, and severe cases may have multiple symptoms at the same time. These symptoms do not occur when we lie on our backs and can be relieved when we sit or lie down. These symptoms sometimes appear at specific timessuch as when you wake up in the morning, when you urinate, after a meal, or after you first take a medication. 02strong< mpa-from-tpl="t">Causes of Orthostatic HypotensionThere are five main causes of orthostatic hypotension:< strong>1) Primary autonomic insufficiencyPrimary autonomic insufficiency mainly occurs in the central nervous system, soAutonomic nerve function impairment is the main disease , which may lead to neuromodulation dysfunction. Lack of sleep, bad spirits, and bad mood. Modern people’s fast-paced life, high work pressure, and often staying up late can easily lead to abnormal autonomic nerve function, which is also the most common cause of orthostatic hypotension. 2) Drug factorsCalcium channel blockers, diuretics, alpha-blockers and other drugs span>materials are closely related to the occurrence of orthostatic hypotension. These drugs have the effect of dilating blood vessels and can cause orthostatic hypotension. These drugs are commonly used in antihypertensives, anti-anxiety drugs, anti-adrenergic drugs and vasodilators. Patients with the above diseases should pay attention to their physical conditions after taking them. Gallery copyright image, do not reproduce with permission3) Postprandial orthostatic hypotension This type of low blood pressure typically occurs after breakfast, usually within 2 hours after a meal, with syncope or a fall. Are you wondering why orthostatic hypotension occurs after eating? After reading the following example, you will understand:After exercising on an empty stomach in the morning, we go home to eat a bowl of hot porridge, and then start standing up to do housework. At this time, postprandial orthostatic hypotension is prone to occur. . This is because the blood sugar is low after a night of hunger; after the morning exercise on an empty stomach, the blood sugar will be lower than before. Drinking a bowl of hot porridge, the stomach is stimulated, causing the gastrointestinal mucosa to dilate, and the starch in the food is hydrolyzed into glucose, which leads to an increase in the secretion of active peptides, which in turn causes visceral and vascular dilation span>. In addition, standing and working after eating, the blood supply to the head is insufficient, and it is easy to have postprandial dizziness. 4) DiabetesData show that the incidence of orthostatic hypotension in diabetic patients is 13%. If diabetes is complicated by orthostatic hypotension, severe cases may lead to cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and even sudden death. DiabetesDue to autonomic dysfunction, the patient’s blood vessel elasticity becomes poor, and the ability to regulate blood vessels also deteriorates, resulting in orthostatic hypotension. Gallery copyright image, reproduced without permission5) infected Pathogenic microorganisms cause the body to produce a variety of cytokines.These inflammatory mediators can paralyze blood vessels, which can lead to a drop in blood pressure. The infection is often accompanied by fever, and the fever is prone to sweating a lot, and the sweat takes away part of the body fluid, making the patient’s blood pressure lower again. 03 Precautions for orthostatic hypotensionFor most patients, orthostatic hypotension is transient and can be caused by sitting or lying down for a while ease. When you notice someone fainting, lie on their back with their head turned to one side to avoid blocking the airway with their tongue; Between the legs, this ensures blood flow to the brain. At the same time, seek medical attention in time to avoid missing the best time for treatment. So, how to prevent orthostatic hypotension in daily life?
- Avoid prolonged standing and prolonged bed rest.
- Take care to strengthen your legs and abdominal muscles.
- Abstaining from smoking and drinking also has a certain preventive effect on orthostatic hypotension.
For the elderly, medication and underlying diseases are one of the factors that trigger orthostatic hypotension. It is reported that the incidence of orthostatic hypotension in the elderly is 20%, and the incidence of elderly people over the age of 75 is as high as 30%. Orthostatic hypotension in older adultsmay lead to falls, fainting, disability, and even increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction, so usually pay more attention! If the elderly suffer from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, it is recommended to add rubber pads on the toilet and bathroom floors, and carpet in the bedroom to avoid bumps when falling.
Author｜Liu Xin Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University
Review｜Guo Shubin Chief Physician of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University
Source: Chinese Medical Association Science Popularization Department The cover picture and the pictures in the text are from the copyright gallery, and the content is not authorized to be reproduced< /p>
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