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In the previous article on bone broth, I dug a pit for glutamine, and today I will fill the pit~
Glutamine is an important amino acid with many functions in the body. Arguably the most important amino acid is no exaggeration, as it is the main protein source.
Proteins are known to be vital to organs and are important carriers, such as transporting substances in the blood; they are also active ingredients in antibodies, which fight harmful viruses and bacteria.
It can be said that our body cannot function without protein, and glutamine is very important as a protein.
However, some students may see some news related to cancer, such as the need to add glutamine to the culture medium of tumors. If you add a tumor, you will be “half-dead”.
So, is glutamine still food for cancer cells? Is it good or bad?
In fact, all of this is related to the function of glutamine. A good raw material is beneficial to healthy cells, but it is difficult to guarantee that it will not help cancer cells. After all, cancer cells also develop from healthy cells. made.
So, is there any way to make glutamine work only on healthy cells without increasing the risk of cancer cells? In fact, there is, and you’ll know when you look at it.
What is glutamine?
For many students, glutamine is still an unfamiliar term. Let us first understand, what is it? What is it for?
→Glutamine is the most basic protein ingredient
Glutamine’s role has been overlooked, mainly because it has not been found to have a decisive role, but it is the most important protein.
Glutamine mainly comes in two different forms: L-glutamine and D-glutamine, but the molecular arrangement is slightly different, but generally the same identical.
The form commonly found in foods and supplements is L-glutamine, which is also the form the body can produce naturally, D-glutamine is relatively unimportant in the body.
When we talk about glutamine deficiency and supplementation, we usually mean L-glutamine, which is also the most abundant amino acid in the blood.
Glutamine is found in many foods, mostly animal foods. The human body can also synthesize it by itself, so the probability of lack of glutamine is not high, but there are also situations where there is a greater demand.
Mainly when the immune system is compromised, as glutamine is a key part of the immune system. It also includes intestinal damage, as glutamine has specific effects on the gut.
Why is glutamine important?
Usually glutamine has little chance of performance, but injury or illness and the more severely compromised immune system may require glutamine supplementation.
→Glutamine and the immune system
As mentioned above, glutamine is the raw material for most proteins and naturally includes antibodies. White blood cells are the main output of the immune system, and glutamine is an important source of fuel for white blood cells.
Mainly because glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in human plasma, and it can be used at a high rate by rapidly dividing cells such as white blood cells to provide energy and optimal nucleotide biosynthesis. condition.
If an injury or illness consumes a lot of glutamine, but not enough glutamine, the body may break down protein stores, such as muscle, and immunity decline.
If you’ve ever seen a prescription for a burn patient, it involves a high-protein diet, a high-glutamine diet, or glutamine supplements, etc. For supporting the immune system.
Glutamine supplementation can improve health, reduce the risk of infection, and shorten hospital stays after surgery, according to a study.
Glutamine can also improve immune function in cells infected with bacteria or viruses.
However, the effect in healthy cells is not as pronounced, probably due to the usual lack of it.
→Glutamine and Gut Health
At first glance, glutamine has little to do with gut health.
However, in addition to immune cells, gut epithelial cells are also rapidly dividing. So it is necessary to capture free glutamine in plasma to provide fuel for intestinal cells.
Meanwhile, glutamine helps keep connections in the gut strong. Studies have shown that it can regulate intestinal permeability, and expression of tight junction proteins in a variety of contexts.
We all know that the integrity of the gut is maintained through tight junctions, and when the tight junctions are disrupted or deceived, harmful wastes and bacteria can leak from the gut , also known as “leaky gut”.
Intestinal leakage is not the leakage of macromolecules. It is often very small holes, so it will not cause very serious consequences in a short time, but it will cause long-term chronic inflammation /strong>.
Not only that, but leaky gut also keeps the immune system in a constant state of tension, making it prone to allergies, increased food sensitivities, or autoimmune diseases.
It can be said that increased intestinal permeability is the “root of all evil” in intestinal diseases. Overconsumption of glutamine results in atrophy of the villi, decreased expression of tight junction proteins, and ultimately increased intestinal permeability.
Glutamine mediates the synthesis of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, both of which contribute to mucin formation and are Integrity is important.
→Glutamine and muscle synthesis
Because glutamine is a building block of protein, many scientists believe that glutamine, as a supplement, can improve muscle growth or exercise performance in athletes.
During illness or injury, the need for glutamine increases, which may be obtained by breaking down muscle, but can glutamine supplementation in healthy conditions also increase muscle?
Related studies are mixed, with some showing no effect on muscle mass or performance; others showing improvements in both muscle mass and strength.
Some researchers have also speculated that glutamine supplements may reduce muscle soreness and promote recovery from strenuous exercise in athletes.
However, there are also no solid research conclusions, although some studies suggest that glutamine plus carbohydrates helps reduce blood markers of post-exercise fatigue, but does not increase the amount of glycogen in the muscles.
However, it should be noted that many athletes not only consume large amounts of protein, but also supplement protein powders, etc., which means that may have a large amount of glutamine. The role of this cannot be ignored.
Glutamine fights aging
There are some recent studies that find a lack of glutamylAmines may accelerate aging, while glutamine supplementation reduces oxidative stress-induced aging in mice.
Glutamine is an amino acid essential for cellular function and is involved in the synthesis of various key molecules, such as the neurotransmitter glutamate and the energy molecule ATP.
There are many principles behind glutamine anti-aging:
1. It can participate in the regulation of mTOR and anti-aging;
2. It participates in autophagy;
3. Reducing glutamine leads to increased cell death and decreased cell proliferation;
4. Increase glutamine and reduce cell death.
Some researchers used an aging-induced premature aging mouse model to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation in vivo.
Mice had a 3% increase in glutamine for two months.
As a result, glutamine-supplemented mice showed improved hair shine and density and restored muscle strength compared to control D-galactose mice , decreased aging, and increased autophagy.
Does Glutamine Increase Cancer Risk?
I wonder if you have paid attention to tumor-related experiments. In experiments, sugars are often added. This is to provide energy for cancer cells to grow. Glutamine is also added. Do you know why? ?
→Cancer cells can eat glutamine
Speak a hard truth: Glutamine, which provides the raw material for normal cells to synthesize proteins, also works for cancer cells.
The scary thing about cancer cells is their unlimited proliferation, which requires energy and a large amount of nitrogen to form proteins. Glutamine is the key nitrogen source.
Not only that, but glutamine produces both lipids and purines, as well as lactic acid and other amino acids. For cancer cells, it is the simultaneous supply of energy and protein.
Glutamine penetrates the blood-brain barrier, so brain tumor development also requires glutamine.
This is also something that ordinary amino acids cannot do, because ordinary amino acids cannot reach the brain.
Cancer cell studies have found that tumor cells consume glutamine 5-10 times faster than normal cells.
Glutamine not only stimulates and supports the growth of cancer cells, it is also one of the prerequisites for the malignant transformation of cells in the pre-cancer and early stages.
Seeing this, you may have a question: Is glutamine good or bad?
→The ketogenic diet, which inhibits
In fact, we should not evaluate nutrients based on pure good and bad. Glutamine, as the most abundant amino acid in the human body, cannot choose why cells use it.
Glutamine is in high demand in rapidly dividing cells because it breaks down for energy and is a key source of nitrogen.
There are normal cells such as intestinal cells, renal epithelial cells, liver cells, neurons, immune cells, pancreatic β cells, etc. When the apoptosis of cells is abnormal or even cancerous, glutamine becomes ” accomplice”.
We certainly can’t avoid glutamine just because it nourishes cancer cells, so it would be great if there was a way to supplement nutrition without fear of cancer.
The ketogenic diet, is the perfect solution to these two principles.
The first ketogenic diet is low carb, and cancer cells lose the main source of nutrients→Sugar, even with glutamine, doesn’t multiply as quickly.
Second, tumor cells sacrifice mitochondrial function in order to proliferate. Because fatty acid oxidation relies primarily on mitochondria, tumor cells cannot utilize fatty acids and ketone bodies.
The ketogenic diet can ensure normal cell energy supply, ketone bodies can also penetrate the blood-brain barrier, the brain can use it even faster, and it can slow down the development of cancer cells.
Key Thin Dragon Says
Glutamine not only has the above functions, but also plays multiple roles in maintaining the physiological homeostasis of various organs and cells.
Such as nitrogen balance and acid-base balance, it is the most important ammonia donor in the kidneys and liver, too much will increase ammonia levels, and acidosis requires glutamine to break down into ammonia.
In rapidly dividing cells, such as enterocytes, fibroblasts and lymphocytes, sufficient glutamine can be utilized at a high rate to ensure many functional activities of the human body.
Muscle tissue is the main site of glutamine synthesis, and muscle growth requires the metabolic precursor of glutamine.
So a lack of glutamine may also lead to muscle loss.
Powerful endogenous antioxidant Glutathione, also requires glutamine as a precursor. Glutathione can not only reduce oxidative stress, but also anti-inflammatory and improve a variety of diseases.
The human gut can synthesize glutamine, but its capacity is limited, so it relies on diet to provide glutamine.
Foods containing protein are generally more glutamine-rich, so animal-based foods are better. Including beef, pork, chicken and other meat, eggs, bone broth, animal offal, etc.
If you are worried that increased glutamine will increase the risk of cancer, then it is best not to consume it with sugar or high-carbohydrate diet, which is the best environment for tumor cells to grow.