The closest treatment to “cure” cancer is to conquer gastric cancer!

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With the continuous development of medical technology and the update and iteration of immunotherapy, the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is no longer unattainable Dream, more and more gastric cancer patients are successfully controlled by suitable immunotherapy.

In this issue, let’s take a look at the new progress of cellular immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer~

01CAR-T cell therapy

CAR-T cell therapy works by taking a patient’s own T cells and modifying them using genetic medicine techniques so that they can produce a type of therapy called a CAR (Chimeric Antigen Receptor) CAR is like a “radar”, can help improve the ability of T cells to recognize tumor cells . The T cells that are equipped with “radar” are called CAR-T cells.

Figure 1: CAR-T cell therapy process [1]

Simply put, CAR-T cell therapy is a highly personalized A treatment that uses a patient’s own cells to fight cancer.

Based on these research foundations, Chinese researchers have developed the world’s first CAR-T cell therapy targeting Claudin18.2——CT041. On May 9, 2022, the team of Peking University Cancer Hospital and Research Institute published a major cancer release in Nature The research article stated that [4],Claudin18.2-redirected CAR-T cells showed considerable curative effect on gastric cancer.response rate in gastrointestinal cancer patients48.6% and in gastric cancer patients57.1%.

This finding indicates that CLDN18.2-specific CAR- T-cell therapy may be a viable treatment option for patients with cancers of the digestive system. These results provide new insights into the use of CAR-T cells for the treatment of solid tumors. However, the final results of this trial and subsequent larger trials are needed.

02MTCA-CTL Cellular Immunotherapy

The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) technology is also based on T cell immunotherapy, which is a kind of adoptive cell therapy. p>

In layman’s terms, this technology mainly uses proteins that are unique to cancer cells, but not found in normal cells or in very low levels as bait.< s strong>Select the “one-in-a-million” lymphocytes that can really fight cancer in the peripheral blood, and then further improve and expand in vitro, Finally, it is returned to the patient’s body.

Because the immune cell therapy uses the patient’s own immune cells for treatment, there are almost no more serious side effects except for mild fever side effects , the burden on the patient’s body is very small[5].

In addition, compared with traditional cellular immunotherapy with no antigen specificity and weaker tumoricidal effect, a new generation of MTCA-CTL immunotherapy is added. A variety of specific antigens, has a more precise targeted tumoricidal effect, and can produce immune memory, Induce long-term and efficient tumor activity. The new generation of MTCA-CTL therapy has an expansion efficiency of about 200-1000 times, making the number of cells cultured to 10 billion and improving the tumoricidal effect[6].

Recently, the first MTCA-CTL solid tumor cell therapy drug KACM001The product of autologous lymphocyte injection was approved by the China Food and Drug Administration to start clinical trials[7], to be combined with Sigio/oxaliplatin or cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced unresectable or metastatic gastric cancer.

03< strong>NK cell therapy

NK cells, the full name in English is “Natural killer cell”, as the name suggests, “natural killer” cells (NK cells) are A type of lymphocyte that exists in the innate immune system and does not accept instructions from other cells, as long as it finds foreign objects such as cancer cells, it will attack, so this is why it is called an innate killer span>.

image source network, invaded and deleted p>

Although NK cells can effectively hit their targets, they do not have the same ability to “remember” targets as T cells.

So great scientists came up with the ideaby introducing preprogrammed NK cells into In patients, such NK cell therapy can make up for the regret of “forgetting” the target. These preprogrammed natural killer cells are tailored to specific cases or patients so they do not trigger adverse reactions and can adapt to naturally trigger and control immune responses as needed.

CYNK-101is made by a specific type of immune cell NK cells. Recently, the FDA granted orphan drug designation to CYNK-101, which is used in combination with standard chemotherapy, anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab and PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab,. First-line treatment of patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic advanced HER2-positive gastric cancer is expected to bring longer survival to these patients..

In conclusion, the three immunotherapies are expected to provide new hope for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. A number of domestic clinical trials have shown that immunotherapy has good safety and durable immune response, and it has shown good prospects in the treatment of gastric cancer. In the future, traditional treatment methods combined with immunotherapy will be a new trend in the treatment of gastric cancer.

What is the five-year survival period? Is it safe for gastric cancer patients to spend five years? Come togetherListen to what Professor Li Jin, Chief Physician of the Oncology Department of Shanghai Dongfang Hospital has to say~