At 17:30 on October 3rd, Beijing time, the highly anticipated 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine will be announced! This year’s Physiology or Medicine Prize went to Svante Pääbo for his “discovery of the genome of the extinct ancient hominin and human evolution”!
Pääbo established a new scientific discipline—paleogenomics. By uncovering the genetic differences that distinguish all living humans from extinct humans, his findings lay the groundwork for exploring what makes us uniquely human. Through his groundbreaking research, Svante Pääbo accomplished the seemingly impossible: sequence the genome of Neanderthals, the extinct close relatives of present-day humans.
About the recipients
Svante Pääbo is a Swedish geneticist specializing in evolutionary genetics. Born on April 20, 1955, a famous biologist and an authority on evolutionary genetics, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He received his PhD from Uppsala University in 1986.
As one of the founders of paleogenetics, he conducted extensive research on the Neanderthal genome. In 2007, Svante Pääbo was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time Magazine; in 2008, he was named one of the 8 Science Heroes of the Year by New Scientist. Pääbo’s father, Sunn Bergstrom, was awarded the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.
About the Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize originally refers to the five prizes established in accordance with Nobel’s 1895 will, including the Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Peace, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. In recognition of the person who has “made the greatest contribution to mankind” in the corresponding field. The Nobel Prize was first awarded in 1901. In 1968, the Riksbank established the Nobel Prize in Economics.
According to the official website of the Nobel Prize, the Nobel Prize is selected and awarded once a year. The Nobel Prize consists of a gold medal, a certificate and a bonus. Among them, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded since 1901. From 1901 to 2021, a total of 224 people have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
10 years of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in Review
● In 2021, American physiologist David Julius and American molecular biologist and neuroscientist Ardem Patapoutian won the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology for their discovery of receptors for temperature and touch or medical awards.
● In 2020, American virologists Harvey J Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M Rice won the “Biomedical Award” of the year for their “discovery of the hepatitis C virus”. The Nobel Prize official website states that blood-borne hepatitis is a major global health problem that causes cirrhosis and liver cancer in people around the world. The discovery of the hepatitis C virus by three scientists is a milestone in the current fight against viral diseases. type of achievement.
● In 2019, William G. Kaelin, Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for uncovering the mechanisms by which cells sense and adapt to oxygen supply.” This paves the way for understanding the molecular mechanisms of oxygen sensing and opens up an important area of research focused on oxygen sensing in mammals, with important implications for the treatment of diseases such as anemia, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer.
● 2018, James P. Allison and Tasuku HonjoAwarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for the treatment of cancer by inhibiting negative immune regulation”. By studying a protein that regulates the immune system, it was discovered that unleashing immune cells to attack tumors has developed the concept into a new treatment for cancer patients.
● In 2017, Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discovery of molecular mechanisms that control circadian rhythms.” Their study paved the way for researchers to further discover more genes and proteins, culminating in a model of what’s called a transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL), which is used to generate autonomous oscillators with periods of about 24 hours.
● Yoshinori Ohsumi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2016 for “discovering the mechanism of autophagy”. The discovery lays the groundwork for a better understanding of the cells’ ability to deal with malnutrition and infection, the causes of certain genetic and neurological diseases, and cancer.
● In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to William C. Campbell & SatoshiŌmura and Tu Youyou, respectively, for their “discovery of novel treatments for parasitic infections caused by nematodes” The award was awarded to the latter for “discovering a novel treatment for malaria”.
● In 2014, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for the discovery of cells that make up the brain’s positioning system” . The properties of these cells, along with those of other types of spatial cells, especially head-orientation cells, help define a “localization system in the brain,” providing a learned way of thinking for the neural encoding of internal cognitive structures.
● In 2013, James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof were awarded “for their discovery of the regulation mechanism of vesicular trafficking, the major intracellular transport system” Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Such studies in model organisms have yielded key relevance to human biology, elucidating the pathogenesis of many human diseases.
● In 2012, John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed into multifunctional ‘stem cells (pluripotent cells)'” prize. Corresponding techniques have provided a new approach for disease modeling and drug screening, with promising applications in cardiovascular regeneration.