◎Reporter Zhang Jiaxing
April 15-21 every year is the National Cancer Prevention and Treatment Publicity Week. On the live broadcast of “The Truth of Cancer Prevention” on early cancer screening, a number of academicians in the field of cancer prevention and treatment directly answered the questions that people are most concerned about.
There are cancer cells in everyone, really?
Is it true that everyone has cancer cells?
“There is some truth to this statement. Our body interacts with many carcinogenic factors all the time, which may lead to the instability of DNA in the body and the transformation of cells.” China Zhan Qimin, academician of the Academy of Engineering and deputy director of the Peking University Council, explained that, in a sense, cancerous changes will continue to occur.
Zhan Qimin also said, but don’t worry about this process, because human beings have formed a powerful immune monitoring system in the process of evolution, which can be continuously cleared when a single cancer cell appears in the body. Therefore, maintaining a good attitude can maintain a stable state in the body, achieve the best state of the immune system, and use good means to screen and diagnose early, detect early cancer or precancerous lesions, and identify and remove cancer cells in time.
Is cancer hereditary “fate”? Is the theory of tumor constitution scientific?
In reality, it is often found that some families have a high probability of developing tumors, so is cancer hereditary “destiny”, and is it scientific to say that “some people are born with a tumor constitution”?
“Some tumors appear due to an important gene mutation, such as a mutation in a gene called BRCA, which can easily lead to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The possibility is as high as 70%.” Zhan Qimin explained, but The chance of cancer forming entirely due to genetic factors is only 5% of the entire tumor.
There is also a hereditary susceptibility gene in the body, which is easy to develop tumors under the interaction with external factors of carcinogenesis. “Therefore, staying away from carcinogens and maintaining a healthy state can minimize the genetic susceptibility factors.” Zhan Qimin said.
In response to the tumor constitution, Tian Yantao, chairman of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association Cancer Prevention and Science Popularization Professional Committee, said that tumors are diseases under the combined action of internal and external factors. In 2020, there will be 4.57 million new cancer patients in my country, familial hereditary tumors account for 5%-10%, and more than 90% of the patients are caused by poor control of acquired eating habits and emotional management.
Does the tumor have “signs”? Can cancer be screened early?
Will there be signs before the tumor arrives, and is there an early warning?
“The early symptoms of all tumors are no typical symptoms.” Wang Guiqi, a long-term professor at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College Hospital, said that when he thinks he is healthy, he eats mamaxiang, so he should take the initiative to do it. Screening and early diagnosis can detect the “signs” of tumors earlier.
“The incidence of cancer in my country is not at the forefront, but the biggest problem is that the mortality rate of cancer patients in my country is relatively high, and the five-year survival rate is relatively low.” Wang Guiqi said that to solve this problem, screening needs to be achieved. Early diagnosis and early treatment can even cure some tumors.
What is the scientific method for early diagnosis of cancer screening?
Wang Guiqi believes that some simple and home-based screening techniques should be provided for the common people, and high-risk groups should be identified through non-invasive methods such as fecal occult blood testing and genetic testing, and then go to medical institutions for gastrointestinal endoscopy. screen.
“Through screening of seemingly healthy asymptomatic people, patients with early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions can be detected, and cancers can be prevented from developing to the next stage.” Director of China Cancer Foundation, Nuohui Health CEO Zhu Yeqing said that screening is to remove the “needle” of cancer or precancerous lesions from the seemingly healthy asymptomatic “sea of people” to prevent the further development of cancer in these patients. The most critical point of cancer screening is to ensure that people who have no problems in the screening are as good as possible, that is, they do not miss the test.
Zhu Yeqing introduced that “Science” magazine once proposed five major challenges in early cancer screening, which mentioned the biological characteristics and effective biomarkers of early cancer. The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer determines the biomarkers used for screening, and the results including hemoglobin, genes and gene methylation are comprehensively analyzed to judge a person’s cancer risk through an algorithm model, through the largest prospective of early cancer screening in China Sexual multicenter registry clinical trial, validated performance.
“Take colorectal cancer screening as an example, using a kit such as FIT-DNA from stool to test by Chang Weiqing in hospitals, communities, and families can cover the refusal of colonoscopy if you do not want to do a digital examination. It can realize early diagnosis and early screening.” Wang Xishan, director of colorectal surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, introduced that after screening, different risk stratification of the population can be carried out, and high, medium, low, low risk, and more Facilitate the screening and detection of bowel cancer.