For the diagnosis and monitoring of colon cancer, it is enough to check these tumor markers

We all know that tumor cells are the human body Cells that “failed” in the Different from normal cells, tumor cells work around the clock, consume a lot of energy and nutrients of the human body, and eventually wear down the human body.

Tumor markers are substances synthesized, released or metabolized by tumor cells during their “work”. In general, normal cells cannot produce these substances, so we can think that they are related to the formation of tumors.

Tumor markers exist in the whole body of tumor patients, including cells, tissues, blood, interstitial fluid, excrement, etc. We can detect its concentration by biochemical, immunological and other methods.

When its concentration exceeds a certain threshold, it can be considered that there may be a corresponding tumor in the patient’s body.

Tumor markers play an irreplaceable role in the auxiliary diagnosis, prognosis judgment, curative effect observation, and recurrence detection of tumor patients.

Currently, the commonly used clinical tumor markers for colorectal cancer are mainly proteins strong>, including the following:

1.CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen)

< p data-track="15">The famous CEA can be described as the “broadest spectrum” tumor marker.

CEA is an embryonic antigenic glycoprotein discovered from fetal and colon cancer tissues. It is also the earliest and most widely used clinical marker of colon cancer.

Generally, clinically, a CEA of 3.5-5.0ng/mL is normal. About 40% to 70% of patients with colorectal cancer have elevated serum CEA, and 70% to 85% of colorectal cancer patients have elevated serum CEA.

However, the proportion of abnormally elevated CEA in patients with early colorectal cancer is low, and the more advanced the cancer, the higher the diagnostic accuracy of CEA.

Carcinoembryonic antigen has high value in predicting the prognosis, postoperative follow-up, recurrence or metastasis of colorectal cancer!

CEA detection before surgery can predict the status and survival period of the tumor.

For patients with complete surgical resection, the CEA usually returns to normal after 6 weeks. The higher the concentration of CEA, the worse the prognosis and the shorter the survival period.

For patients with postoperative residual or metastasis, the value may reach 5 to 6 times the normal value, which usually indicates a poor prognosis.

Elevated CEA level after surgery is also a sign of recurrence, about 50% of surgical patients early recurrence signal is increased CEA level, which is higher than clinical Imaging examination found early 3 to 8 months.

After colorectal cancer surgery or after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, continuous measurement of CEA is of great significance for monitoring the recurrence of colorectal cancer and evaluating the efficacy.

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) clinical guidelines for colon cancer suggest that after radical surgery for colon cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen should be checked regularly, every 3 to 6 months within 2 years Check once, and recheck every 6 months thereafter for a total of 5 years of monitoring.

2.CA19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9)

CA19-9 is colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer Tumor-related markers.

The upper limit of the normal value of most CA19-9 is 40ku/L, the concentration will be significantly increased in patients with digestive tract cancer, positive in colorectal cancer The rate is 30% to 50%.

Although there is no relationship between carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9, the diagnostic sensitivity of carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9 can reach 86.36%.

Combined monitoring of carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9 is helpful for early detection of recurrence and metastasis, as a routine examination for patients with colorectal cancer after surgery means.

3.CA242 (Carbohydrate Antigen 242)

CA242 is a relatively new tumor marker.

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The normal value of CA242 is less than 20 ku/L, the effect of elevated CA242 on pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer The diagnostic value is greater, and its sensitivity is similar to that of CA19-9, but its specificity is better than that of CA19-9.

The combined examination of CA19-9 and CA242 has been confirmed to have a certain effect on the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer.

4. Other carbohydrate antigens (CA72-4, CA50, CA724)

The normal value of CA72-4 is 0-6u/ml. Clinically, the increase of CA72-4 is common in colorectal cancer (mainly used for auxiliary monitoring of rectal cancer), breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, epithelial Ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, etc.

CA50 and CA724 are broad-spectrum tumor markers. Infectious diseases such as pneumonia, nephritis, pancreatitis, and colitis, as well as ulcerative diseases and autoimmune diseases can all lead to elevated serum CA50 and CA724.

Therefore, CA50 and CA724 are often detected together with CEA, etc., as markers for auxiliary diagnosis of primary and recurrent colorectal cancer.

In summary, in the diagnosis and prognosis monitoring of colorectal cancer Tumor markers with high value include CEA, CA19-9, CA242, CA72-4, CA50, CA724, etc.

There is not a one-to-one correspondence between tumor markers and tumors. A tumor marker with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity has not been found clinically.

The various tumor markers of colon cancer also need to be diagnosed through joint diagnosis, combined with patient’s medical history, clinical manifestations, imaging examination, etc. , in order to effectively improve the accuracy.

Therefore, patients do not need to be too nervous when they get the test sheet showing elevated tumor markers after the physical examination, and just follow the doctor’s advice for the next step of investigation.