Chinese wine culture has a long history, more than 3,000 years old. From the Tang Dynasty Li Bai’s “Life is full of joy, don’t let the golden bottle face the moon”, to contemporary people’s early C(Coffee )Evening A（Alcohol）, wine has become an indispensable drink in the lives of many people.< /p>
Golden bottle nectar is a joy to all countries. From Chinese liquor, to Scotch whisky, to Dutch brandy, to Russian vodka, alcohol is popular all over the world. It is estimated that the number of people who drink alcohol worldwide As many as more than 2 billion, about 1 in 4 people drink alcohol.
However, as the so-called “drink for pleasure, drink for health”, if If the amount is not controlled, wine will also become the yellow spring water that “emerges and ascends to immortality”. The global burden of disease(Global Burden of Disease, GBD)Data estimates that in 2020, there will be about 1.34 billion men and 312 million women drink harmful amounts of alcohol, and about 1.78 million people die from drinking alcohol. Not only that, but excessive alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of death among middle-aged men aged 15-49. span>
stratified by age and sex, the proportion of the global population who drink more than harmful amounts of alcohol< /p>
However, “drinking alcohol in moderation” seems like a very “metaphysical” statement. How much is “appropriate”? Are there health risks to ‘moderate drinking’? Are there any specific indicators of “moderateness” for different age groups? Scientists are also arguing about it.
Recently, a major study published in The LancetPopulation-level risks of alcohol consumption by amount, geography, age, sex, and year: a systematic analysis for The Global Burden of Disease Study 2020, based on 21 global regions, including 204 countries and territories, quantified the risk of alcohol intake by age, sex, and year.
The results show thatfor young people aged 15-39, drinking alcohol has no health benefits, only health risks! For middle-aged and elderly people aged 40 and older with no underlying health problems, they may benefit from drinking small amounts of alcohol(1-2 standard drinks per day), including reducing Cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes risk, etc.
Young people, it is better not to develop the habit of “singing with wine”, it is better to “always drink and follow the scenery” when you are old.
The researchers collected GBD data for men and women aged 15-95 over 30 years 1990-2020, based on 21 global regions(204 countries included), assessing the impact of alcohol consumption on 22 health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic disease, and more, and Weighted, all-attributable alcohol relative risk curves were drawn using a Bayesian meta-regression tool to provide evidence for the development of global alcohol consumption recommendations.
When developing effective evidence-based guidelines and alcohol restriction policies, two quantities are critical and the focus of this study:< /p>
①TMREL（Theoretical minimum risk exposure level）, the Theoretical minimum risk exposure level for alcohol intake, Represents the amount of alcohol consumption that minimizes overall population health loss (whole population, macro).
②NDE（Non-drinker equivalence）, which is Non-drinker equivalence , used to measure the risk of health loss in drinkers equal to the amount of alcohol consumed by non-drinkers (individual amount, micro).
The results of the data analysis showed:Overall, regardless of geography, age, gender, or age, TMREL remained relatively high. Low levels, fluctuating between 0-1.87 standard cups per day.
Here, the point that every reader is most concerned about is: How much is a standard glass of wine?
/img>1 standard glass of wine, defined as 10g pure alcohol
A small glass of red wine, about 100ml, with an alcohol content of 13%;
A can or bottle of beer, about 375ml, with an alcohol content of 3.5%;
A small cup of spirits(whiskey or liquor), about 30ml, with 40% alcohol content
, the recommended alcohol intake for the adult population is at a low level of 2 standard glasses per day All alcohol poses adverse health risks.
Age is one of the important factors contributing to the significant differences in the level of health risks associated with alcohol consumption, with significantly lower TMREL and NDE in the younger group, the researchers say in the elderly group. But gender and age did not matter.
In age stratification, the TMREL of the older group was significantly higher than that of the younger group. Specifically, individuals aged 15-39 had a TMREL of 0.000-0.603 standard cups/day, while those aged 40 and older had TMRELs of 0.114-1.87 standard cups/day. Among them,
15-39 years oldmale< span>TMREL levels were 0.136 standard cups/day and 0.273 standard cups/day for women;
< span>Men 40-64 years old had TMREL levels of 0.527 standard cups/day and women were 0.562 standard cups/day days;
Men 65 and older TMREL levels were 0.636 standard cups/day and 0.656 standard cups/day for women, respectively.
The same situation also occurs at the NDE level, the NDE for individuals aged 15-39 is 0.002-1.75 standard cups/day, much lower than 0.193-6.94 standard cups/day for the age of 40 and over. Among them,
Men 15-39 years oldNDE levels were 0.249 standard cups/day, 0.546 standard cups/day for women;
40-64 The NDE levels for males were 1.69 standard cups/day and women 1.82 standard cups/day; < /p>
Men 65 and older had NDE levels of 3.19 standard cups/day, Women is 3.51 standard cups/day.
The younger you are, the lower your TMREL and NDE levels, ie drinking less alcohol will damage your health! Dana Bryazka, who led the study, emphasized that “Young men are the group most likely to reach harmful levels of drinking, with just one beer drinking can increase the risk of damage to health, and the current minimum level of safe drinking for whichis still too high.”
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In other words,In young and middle-aged people aged 15-39, drinking even one standard glass of wine a day can induce adverse effects The occurrence of health events; and for middle-aged and elderly people aged 40 and above, a small amount of alcohol(1-2 standard drinks) is within the controllable range.
PS: Until now, I finally understand Jay Chou’s intention to only order milk at the bar…
/img>TMREL and NDE levels by region, age group, sex in 2020
The younger you are, the less you can drink? Why is there such an “anti-common sense” difference?
According to the researchers’ analysis, this result is mainly due to differences in the main causes of death and disease burden among different age groups.
Among 15-39 year olds, Alcohol-related “lost life” is mainly attributable to acute injury, accounting for approximately half of alcohol-related DALYs. These include traffic injuries, self-harm/suicide, interpersonal violence/homicide, etc..
at 40-64 chronic health conditions(such as cardiovascular disease and cancer), diseases such as ischemic heart disease and cerebral hemorrhage accounted for a significant increase in the proportion of alcohol-related DALYs. While unintentional injuries are still an important source of burden, they are significantly lower compared to those aged 15-39.
In people 65 years and older, the major disease burden due to alcohol consumption From cardiovascular disease,such as ischemic heart disease, cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, etc.
The researchers also added, Moderate alcohol consumption was also associated with an increased risk of certain diseases in the age group 40 years and older, including a reduced risk of stroke and diabetes.
In summary, 40 Possible reasons for the decreased health risk caused by alcohol consumption in the above age groups include: 1. Reduced acute injury events caused by alcohol consumption; 2. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of stroke, diabetes and other diseases.
Relative proportion of DALYs associated with alcohol consumption by GBD region, age, and gender group in 2020 p>
*DALYs, or disability-adjusted life-years, refers to the total healthy life-years lost from onset to death, including years of life lost due to premature death and disability Years of healthy life lost due to two parts
To sum up, the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and health is complex. From this study, the recommended alcohol intake should be more age-based. For young people, any amount of alcohol consumption can be a health burden; for people aged 40 and older, drinking 1-2 drinks in moderation may confer certain health benefits.
So the easiest way for young people to reduce risk is to “don’t drink”! If you are really craving for wine, you might as well wait until you are old to drink it~ When you go home to eat with your parents during the holidays, you should watch them drink. I will drink milk…
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GBD 2020 Alcohol Collaborators. Population- level risks of alcohol consumption by amount, geography, age, sex, and year: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2020. Lancet. 2022 Jul 16;400(10347):185-235. doi: 10.1016/S0140- 6736(22)00847-9. Erratum in: Lancet. 2022 Jul 19;: PMID: 35843246; PMCID: PMC9289789.https://www.eurekalert .org/news-releases/958569Writing | SwagppEditing| Swagpp