The first case of monkeypox was found in China! The disease has spread to 68 countries around the world. Will Ta become the next super infectious disease?

At the same time as the struggle, another virus emerged, causing panic again.


Monkeypox has spreadto 68 countries in just a few months ,Over 14,000 monkeypox cases. As of July 15, there have been 1,814 confirmed cases of monkeypox across the United States, and even two cases in Taiwan, China.

Monkeypox spread rapidly to different countries and groups in a short period of time, causing governments, scientists and health personnel around the world to feel Shocking, because the monkeypox virus has never spread beyond Africa before.

WHO says monkeypox cases are often found in West and Central Africa, but confirmed and suspected cases are currently being reported in many countries. No travel history to any monkeypox endemic areas. Based on current opinion from health experts, monkeypox outbreaks may soon be declared a pandemic(pandemic).


Monkeypox—a close relative of smallpox< /span>

Monkeypox is a viral infection caused byzoonotic disease .

Monkeypox virus and smallpox virus (variola virus) belong to the genus Orthopoxvirus. Vaccinia virus, vaccinia virus.

Smallpox (samllpox), I believe everyone is familiar with it, is the oldest in history, and also death The most common infectious disease.

Saccharin who is familiar with Qing history (or Qing Dynasty palace fighting dramas) must have an impression. The experience of being able to successfully ascend to the throne and surviving smallpox may also be an important factor).

On May 8, 1980, WHO announced the complete eradication of smallpox, and then the global phasing out of general population vaccination against smallpox, monkeypox succeeded to become the most serious orthopox virus.

Monkeypox virus showed rounded brick shape or oval shape under the electron microscope, the size was about 200*250nm, and the outer periphery was about 30nm thick. The envelope is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus.

The virus can grow in human, monkey and murine rodent cells span>. This also shows that the source of infection is not only “monkeys” infected with monkeypox virus, but also people with monkeypox, and possibly mice infected with monkeypox virus.

Before the recent intensive reports of monkeypox cases, monkeypox cases were occasionally reported in Congo (DRC), Congo (Brazzaville), Central African Republic, Nigeria , Cameroon and other West and Central African countries. The monkeypox virus is divided into the Central African (Congo Basin) branch and the West African branch according to its specific gene sequence differences.

Monkeypox virus is resistant to low temperature and drying; It can survive for months in clothing worn by patients and in scabs that fall off.

The smallpox virus has similar properties, so in some Gongdou dramas, smallpox scabs or clothes are regarded as harmful People’s weapons actually have a basis.

The monkeypox virus is sensitive to heat and can be inactivated by heating at 56°C for 30 minutes or 60°C for 10 minutes , Conventional disinfectants and ultraviolet rays can also destroy the virus.


Poxviruses generally invade the human body through broken skin or mucous membranes, and may carry the virus, such as the above-mentioned infected primates (monkeys, apes), rodents (squirrel, dormouse) and monkeypox patients.

According to previous case reports, monkeypox patients are mainly human handling infected animals , contact with its lesion exudate, or blood, for consumption Undercooked meat of infected animalsand infected animalsbite infection.

Person-to-person transmission is primarilyclose contact< span>Transmission (PS. Sexual behavior is of course a type of close contact), in additiondroplet respiratorytransmission, contact with objects contaminated with monkeypox virus,vertical transmission from mother to child It is also the route of infection of monkeypox virus.


Consequences of infection with monkeypox

The four viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus are simply four of them are blood relatives, and these four sisters cause human Symptoms after the disease are also very similar.

We can actually recognize the symptoms of monkeypox to a certain extent through the performance of smallpox in film and television dramas: first < strong>In the early stage of infection, there will be fever, headache, muscle aches and fatigue, which are often non-specific manifestations of viral infection such as.

Monkeypox infection may be associated with more severe lymphadenopathybased on previous case reports. /span>, this is somewhat different from the usual behavior of smallpox.

A rash that is more specific to monkeypox develops over a wide area of ​​the face and body.

usually the initial stage of the rash is a maculopapular rash. Small blisters and pustules appear.

These blisters and pustules have a tendency to heal themselves, gradually absorb and dry up, and the erythema and blister surface will crust over And gradually fall off, after which it may take up to three weeks for the scab to disappear completely.

After the scab falls off, erythema or hyperpigmentation may be left behind, or even scarring. The scarring can last for several years. Depressed scars are the most common. sequelae.

Compared with smallpox, monkeypox generally has mild symptoms and is mostly self-limiting. Most patients Self-healing in 2-4 weeksComplications can occur.

span>Severe cases are common in young children and immunocompromised people, and prognosis is related to the viral branch of infection, the degree of virus exposure, previous health status, and the severity of complications.

Most of the deaths were children under 10 years old, mainly due to complications. According to previous reports, the fatality rate of the Central African branch is about 10%, and the case fatality rate of the West African branch is about 3%. This mortality rate is related to the poor basic medical conditions in Africa.

  Complications that are relatively common are: : 

< span>Secondary bacterial infection: Skin tissue furuncle, carbuncle, cellulitis, abscess, necrotizing soft tissue infection, suppurative lymphadenitis, posterior pharyngeal wall abscess, etc. Severe infection can be complicated by sepsis and septic shock.

< strong>Respiratory Complications: Bronchopulmonary pneumonia, which may cause respiratory distress in severe cases.

< strong>Gastrointestinal complications:Vomiting and/or diarrhea in young children can lead to severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and acid-base disturbances.

< strong>Viral encephalitis:Convulsions, disturbance of consciousness, and even coma.

< strong>Keratitis or corneal ulcer: strong>Severe eye infections can lead to permanent vision loss.


Why monkeypox happens It’s scary

This is also related to our victory over smallpox. We also mentioned that the four viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus are simply related to each other. Relatives, I believe that saccharin people have heard that the British country doctor Jenner discovered that the vaccination of cowpox to prevent smallpox virus replaced the original method of vaccination of human pox to prevent smallpox.

This is also because orthopoxviruses all contain soluble antigens, nucleoprotein antigens and hemagglutinin, and the antigenic properties are basically the same, and they enjoy each other. With the same antigenic cluster, theninfected with one orthopoxvirus in the body can form a certain degree of cross-protection against the infection of other orthopoxviruses.

in simple terms, infected with cowpox, After the body produces an immune response, there is a certain degree of resistance to orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox in the future.

After 1980, due to the extinction of smallpox, after the smallpox vaccine was stopped one after another, people were not vaccinated against smallpox, and they also lost the vaccine production. The protective effect of smallpox, vaccinia and other patients.


Do we need a smallpox vaccine?

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in 2019 non-replicating form produced by Bavarian Nordic, Denmark Smallpox vaccineJynneos (MVA-BN) can be used for active immunization of adults at high exposure risk (including special populations such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or atopic dermatitis) to prevent smallpox and Monkeypox, which isthe world’s only vaccine currently approved to prevent monkeypox.

This vaccine is mainly aimed at high-risk groups of monkeypox virus infection, not recommended Mass vaccination. At present, the efficacy and safety of various vaccines in the prevention of monkeypox still need to be supported by more evidence-based medicine.

Although monkeypox cases have been reported in many countries, China Customs and the Department of Animal and Plant Quarantine have always been very strong, firmly guarding the safety of the people. Unless there is a trip to a monkeypox outbreak area,monkeypox is far from our lives, so don’t worry too much.

But to be a little more verbose, like the anthrax in the previous popular science, these zoonotic diseases are a very important way It is the contact or consumption of wild animals and plants that have not been quarantined. So whether you are traveling or at home, try your best to keep your hands don’t touch the wild cutie, keep your mouth shut and don’t hunt for exotic game.

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