[Source: Workers Daily]
How should a patient with chronic kidney disease eat a healthy diet? It is an extremely important link in the treatment of kidney disease, because the kidney damage (high proteinuria and high serum creatinine) of many patients with kidney disease is closely related to their unreasonable diet and living habits. When patients with chronic kidney disease are combined with malnutrition, many Adverse consequences, such as decreased resistance, combined bacterial infection, or even fungal or tuberculosis infection, and the disease is not easy to control after infection; it is also accompanied by decreased physical strength, often feeling fatigued, decreased work energy, and in severe cases can not take care of themselves; psychologically prone to low self-esteem Sensation and mental distress, and decreased quality of life.
1. High-quality protein diet
Patients with chronic kidney disease have different degrees of proteinuria, and some protein will be lost in urine, so it should be appropriately increased Protein intake is 1.2-1.5 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. In the daily diet, the intake of plant proteins such as rice and noodles should be limited, and wheat starch (or other starches) should be used as the staple food instead of ordinary rice and noodles. Protein intake should be dominated by animal protein, such as egg whites, milk, fish, lean meat, poultry, etc., which have a high content of essential amino acids, which is what we call high-quality protein.
II. Sufficient calorie supply
Patients with chronic kidney disease should ensure adequate energy intake while appropriately restricting protein intake. kcal/kg body weight. Try to choose a variety of foods with reasonable nutrition, and the main source of energy should be carbohydrate-based carbohydrates and vegetable oil-based unsaturated fatty acids. Eat less foods rich in saturated fatty acids, such as animal fats, fatty pork, chicken skin, etc.
3. Control water intake
Patients with chronic kidney disease are prone to high blood pressure and edema due to abnormal renal function. The dialysis patients with oliguria, edema, hypertension, heart failure, etc. must strictly control the water intake, otherwise it will increase the burden on the patient’s heart and aggravate renal damage. Generally, the daily water intake = the urine volume of the previous day + 500ml, and the water content of the food should also be included. Tips for drinking water: There are scales in the water cup, and there are plans to drink water; in order to reduce thirst, you should avoid drinking strong tea and coffee. You can add lemon slices or mint leaves to the drinks, and you can also make some drinks into ice cubes. in the mouth.
4. Limit sodium intake
Excessive sodium intake in patients with chronic kidney disease can lead to excessive weight gain, hypertension, and edema and congestive heart failure, so sodium intake needs to be controlled. Patients with chronic kidney disease can eat about 6 grams of sodium per day, if combined with severe hypertension or edema, it should be limited to 3g/day. The diet should be light, do not eat too salty, and reduce the intake of various seasonings and processed pickled products in life.
5. Limit potassium intake
Patients with chronic kidney disease are at high risk of hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia can lead to severe cardiac arrhythmias and even cardiac arrest. Foods high in potassium should be avoided, such as mushrooms, sea vegetables, beans, lotus seeds, bananas, oranges, grapes, etc; Do not consume sodium salt substitutes. Constipation should be prevented and treated because stool also removes excess potassium from the body.
6. Maintain calcium and phosphorus balance
Patients with chronic kidney disease often have calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders, mainly manifested as hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. For patients with chronic kidney disease, in addition to dietary calcium, calcium and active vitamin D should generally be supplemented in an appropriate amount, and foods high in phosphorus should be avoided, such as egg yolks, animal offal, dried beans, nuts, cheese, chocolate, etc. Instead, choose foods with a low phosphorus/protein ratio, such as egg protein, pigskin, sea cucumber, tilapia, etc.; learn to choose drinks with less phosphorus. In addition, the correct cooking method is very important. The addition of food additives should be reduced during cooking. Meat food should be boiled to remove phosphorus. When eating eggs, the yolk can be removed and only egg whites can be eaten. Vegetables and rice can also be soaked, boiled and other methods to remove part of the phosphorus.
Seven, maintain vitamin intake
Chronic kidney disease patients can be combined with a lack of multiple vitamins, especially water-soluble vitamins – vitamin B and Vitamin C. You can eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, and you can also choose multivitamin preparations within the recommended intake range to supplement your daily diet and prevent vitamin deficiency. (Reporter Lai Zhikai correspondent Bai Lin)
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