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Beware of Heat Killers
Every summer, high temperature is one of the serious hazards. This year, the high temperature weather is even higher than the next wave. The high temperature and the long duration are frequently breaking records, involving more and more areas, and the high temperature red warning has become a hot search screen. “Hot death” is no longer an adjective for unbearable heat, but a description of real events. Heat stroke has become a hot spot of public concern recently. However, heat stroke is not equal to heat stroke. It is only one of the diseases caused by severe heat stroke. Before the occurrence of heat stroke, some symptoms and signs need to be highly vigilant. Proper treatment can prevent the disease from progressing and save the patient’s life.
Threatened heat stroke
Dizziness, headache, and limb weakness in high temperature , thirst, sweating, palpitation, chest tightness, inattention, incoordination and other symptoms, normal or slightly elevated body temperature (generally not more than 38.0 ℃), may be accompanied by flushing, burning skin, etc. At this time, the patient should be transported to a cool and ventilated place in time to replenish water and salt, and the symptoms will disappear after a short rest.
heatstroke can be divided into three types: heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke according to different clinical manifestations.
Mainly caused by excessive sweating and loss of water and salt due to high temperatures Caused by electrolyte imbalance. Manifested as whole body muscle spasm and severe pain, the gastrocnemius muscle is the most obvious, the spasm is generally symmetrical, sometimes onset, sometimes relieved, mild cases do not affect work, the patient is conscious, and most of the body temperature is normal.
mainly The onset of the disease is rapid due to peripheral vasodilation and a large amount of water loss caused by high temperature, resulting in a decrease in circulating blood volume. Manifested as dizziness, headache, palpitation, sweating, thirst, nausea, and vomiting, followed by clammy skin, pale complexion, syncope, a transient drop in blood pressure, and a high body temperature. Heat exhaustion occurs at a higher rate in the elderly or in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Most patients have acute onset, a few have a prodromal period, Manifested as weakness, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and polyuria. Typical symptoms are sudden high fever, body temperature often above 40°C, dry, burning skin without sweating, accompanied by varying degrees of disturbance of consciousness, etc. If the body temperature exceeds 41°C and lasts for a long time, it may be combined with multiple organ failure and diffusion. Intravascular coagulation, the prognosis is poor.
Severe heatstroke should be taken to hospital immediately. , correct water and electrolyte imbalance, actively prevent shock, cerebral edema and so on. Patients with heat cramps can take salty beverages orally, and if necessary, intravenous bolus calcium gluconate solution. For patients with heat exhaustion, first lie down in a cool place, and generally recover after supplementing water and salt. Sometimes intravenous injection of 50% glucose solution can help recovery.
(Contributed by Occupational Health Institute, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention)