5 types of people belong to the high-risk group of lung cancer, 4 methods can diagnose lung cancer, and early detection is the most important

Lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest incidence in the world, and it is a veritable cancer boss. Lung cancer also has the highest morbidity and mortality in my country. Half of the inpatients in the respiratory department of some hospitals are lung cancer patients, which shows that the prevention and treatment situation of lung cancer is very serious. Early detection of lung cancer is the key to cure of lung cancer, because early stage lung cancer can be cured. Once lung cancer metastasizes, whether it is local lymph node metastasis or metastasis to other distant organs, it cannot be cured, so regular inspection is very important. So who needs to be checked, and what tests can be done to diagnose lung cancer, let’s take a look.

Because lung cancer does not have any symptoms in the early stage, and seldom sends any warning signals to the body, lung cancer screening is very important, especially for high-risk groups who are prone to lung cancer, and regular lung cancer screening is required. Low-dose spiral CT examination. Lung cancer high-risk groups include

1. Have a long history of smoking, smoking index over 400, quit smoking but have quit smoking for less than 15 years;

2.55 years of age or older with a family history of lung cancer or other malignancies;

3. There is a history of occupational exposure, long-term exposure to radiation, chemical raw materials or working in a dusty environment;

4. History of malignant tumors in other parts of the body;

5. Have a history of chronic lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, chronic pulmonary fibrosis, etc.). For people at high risk of lung cancer, it is best to do a lung CT examination every year after the age of 40, which is a manifestation of being responsible for oneself. As early as March 2012, the NCCN guidelines in the United States recommended the use of low-dose CT as the main method for early screening of lung cancer in high-risk groups with Class 1 evidence.

Lung CT is a screening method for lung cancer and cannot be used as the basis for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Pathological diagnosis is the gold standard for lung cancer diagnosis. When suspicious lesions are found on CT of the lungs, further examination is required to clarify them. The main methods include:

1. Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is an effective means of diagnosing lung cancer, especially central lung cancer, which is usually diagnosed by bronchoscopy. The location and extent of tumor invasion can be observed through bronchoscopy, and tissue is taken under the microscope for pathological examination. In recent years, bronchoscopy technology has developed rapidly, and it has already developed from fiberoptic bronchoscopy to electronic bronchoscopy, ultrafine bronchoscopy, and ultrasonic bronchoscopy. For lesions growing under the tracheal mucosa, ultrasonic bronchoscopy can be selected. It is a traditional bronchoscope plus an ultrasonic probe, which can be used for needle aspiration biopsy under the microscope with ultrasound-guided bronchoscopy, with high accuracy.

2. Lung puncture biopsy For lesions growing around the lungs, or parts that cannot be obtained by deep bronchoscopy, lung puncture can be performed under the guidance of CT. Perform pathological examination.

3. Metastatic biopsy pathology Some patients with lung space-occupying CT findings and superficial lymph node metastasis such as supraclavicular, neck, and axilla or subcutaneous nodules can be excised. Metastatic lesions were examined by pathological biopsy, and immunohistochemical examination was performed to assist in the diagnosis to identify different types of lung cancer.

4. Surgical biopsy, this method is suitable for early-stage lung cancer. If early-stage lung cancer is found by various imaging examinations, such as chest CT, but other methods cannot obtain specimens, Surgical resection of the nodule can be considered for both radical cure and definitive diagnosis.

The above four methods are the most commonly used clinical examination methods for the diagnosis of lung cancer. In addition, patients with excessive phlegm can also leave sputum for exfoliated cell examination. The positive rate of this test is low and only Can be used as an auxiliary inspection. Blood sampling for lung cancer-related tumor markers can also be used as an auxiliary examination method for lung cancer.

If the patient has been diagnosed with lung cancer, head MRI, bone scan, and CT scan of the neck, chest, and abdomen are required to determine whether there is distant metastasis and to evaluate whether surgery can be performed. Patients with better economic status can directly do PET-CT examination for preoperative evaluation.