Hematological diseases are diseases of the hematopoietic system, mainly related to biological, immune, chemical, physical, genetic and other factors.
Clinically, the disease can be divided into red blood cell disease, white blood cell disease, hemostatic and thrombotic diseases. Because there are many types of the disease, different types have different symptoms. However, people with the disease generally experience three symptoms frequently in the early stages. So what are the three symptoms?
Patients with this disease will have obvious symptoms of anemia. This symptom is mainly manifested as fatigue, drowsiness, weakness, decreased endurance, pale skin, etc., among which pale skin is a common objective symptom of the disease. In addition, the patient’s respiratory, nervous, digestive, genitourinary and other systems will also be affected.
When the respiratory system is affected, the main manifestations are palpitations and shortness of breath; when the nervous system is affected, the main manifestations are dizziness, tinnitus, drowsiness, headache, drowsiness, unresponsiveness, and memory loss. etc.;
The digestive system is mainly manifested by nausea, decreased appetite, vomiting, indigestion, etc.; the genitourinary system is mainly manifested by increased nocturia, increased menstruation or secondary amenorrhea, decreased libido, etc.
Bleeding is also one of the most important human symptoms of the disease, mainly manifested as skin and mucous membrane bleeding, such as hematoma, purpura, ecchymosis, etc., and some may manifest as nose, gum oozing or menstruation Wait too much. In severe patients, there may be manifestations of visceral hemorrhage, such as hematuria, gastrointestinal or intracranial hemorrhage. In a small number of patients, severe bleeding can lead to death.
There are many reasons for bleeding, mainly including abnormal platelets and disorders of coagulation mechanism. The hemorrhage caused by the former is skin and mucous membrane hemorrhage, and the bleeding caused by the latter is mostly manifested as deep muscle hematoma and intra-articular hemorrhage.
If the patient has severe bleeding during the operation and the hemostasis effect of local compression is more durable, most of them are abnormal blood vessels or platelets. If the bleeding during the operation is not serious, but there is severe bleeding after the operation, and the effect of local compression on hemostasis is not good, then most of the blood coagulation mechanism is abnormal.
Patients with this disease experience fever, which may be the first symptom in some patients. The mechanism of fever in this disease mainly has two aspects. On the one hand, due to neutropenia or decreased immune function, the patient’s immunity is low, and the patient is susceptible to the invasion of pathogens and the infectious fever occurs.
The other is the fever caused by the blood system itself, most of which are tumor-related fever, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myelofibrosis, etc. In addition, Hodgkin lymphoma usually causes periodic fever.
In addition, patients may experience enlarged lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, among other symptoms. These symptoms mainly appear in lymphoma, plasma cell disease, myeloid leukemia, malignant histiocytosis, lipidosis and other diseases.
In addition, severe hemolytic anemia and hypersplenism. Spleen enlargement may occur, but splenomegaly usually does not occur.
It can be seen from the above that when symptoms such as anemia, bleeding, and fever frequently occur in the early stage, we must be alert to the possibility of blood diseases and conduct a comprehensive physical examination in time. General examination of the disease include bone marrow, blood routine, peripheral blood smear, biochemical and immunology, imaging, cytogenetics, molecular biology, histopathology and so on.
After the investigation is clear, the primary disease treatment should be carried out according to the specific situation. In addition to the treatment of the primary disease, diet, nutrition, mental, and psychological treatments are also required.